Topic

# Missing data

About: Missing data is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21363 publications have been published within this topic receiving 784923 citations.

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01 Jan 2001

TL;DR: This is the essential companion to Jeffrey Wooldridge's widely-used graduate text Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data (MIT Press, 2001).

Abstract: The second edition of this acclaimed graduate text provides a unified treatment of two methods used in contemporary econometric research, cross section and data panel methods. By focusing on assumptions that can be given behavioral content, the book maintains an appropriate level of rigor while emphasizing intuitive thinking. The analysis covers both linear and nonlinear models, including models with dynamics and/or individual heterogeneity. In addition to general estimation frameworks (particular methods of moments and maximum likelihood), specific linear and nonlinear methods are covered in detail, including probit and logit models and their multivariate, Tobit models, models for count data, censored and missing data schemes, causal (or treatment) effects, and duration analysis. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data was the first graduate econometrics text to focus on microeconomic data structures, allowing assumptions to be separated into population and sampling assumptions. This second edition has been substantially updated and revised. Improvements include a broader class of models for missing data problems; more detailed treatment of cluster problems, an important topic for empirical researchers; expanded discussion of "generalized instrumental variables" (GIV) estimation; new coverage (based on the author's own recent research) of inverse probability weighting; a more complete framework for estimating treatment effects with panel data, and a firmly established link between econometric approaches to nonlinear panel data and the "generalized estimating equation" literature popular in statistics and other fields. New attention is given to explaining when particular econometric methods can be applied; the goal is not only to tell readers what does work, but why certain "obvious" procedures do not. The numerous included exercises, both theoretical and computer-based, allow the reader to extend methods covered in the text and discover new insights.

28,298 citations

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01 Jan 1987

TL;DR: This work states that maximum Likelihood for General Patterns of Missing Data: Introduction and Theory with Ignorable Nonresponse and large-Sample Inference Based on Maximum Likelihood Estimates is likely to be high.

Abstract: Preface.PART I: OVERVIEW AND BASIC APPROACHES.Introduction.Missing Data in Experiments.Complete-Case and Available-Case Analysis, Including Weighting Methods.Single Imputation Methods.Estimation of Imputation Uncertainty.PART II: LIKELIHOOD-BASED APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF MISSING DATA.Theory of Inference Based on the Likelihood Function.Methods Based on Factoring the Likelihood, Ignoring the Missing-Data Mechanism.Maximum Likelihood for General Patterns of Missing Data: Introduction and Theory with Ignorable Nonresponse.Large-Sample Inference Based on Maximum Likelihood Estimates.Bayes and Multiple Imputation.PART III: LIKELIHOOD-BASED APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF MISSING DATA: APPLICATIONS TO SOME COMMON MODELS.Multivariate Normal Examples, Ignoring the Missing-Data Mechanism.Models for Robust Estimation.Models for Partially Classified Contingency Tables, Ignoring the Missing-Data Mechanism.Mixed Normal and Nonnormal Data with Missing Values, Ignoring the Missing-Data Mechanism.Nonignorable Missing-Data Models.References.Author Index.Subject Index.

18,201 citations

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01 Jan 1987

TL;DR: In this article, a survey of drinking behavior among men of retirement age was conducted and the results showed that the majority of the participants reported that they did not receive any benefits from the Social Security Administration.

Abstract: Tables and Figures. Glossary. 1. Introduction. 1.1 Overview. 1.2 Examples of Surveys with Nonresponse. 1.3 Properly Handling Nonresponse. 1.4 Single Imputation. 1.5 Multiple Imputation. 1.6 Numerical Example Using Multiple Imputation. 1.7 Guidance for the Reader. 2. Statistical Background. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Variables in the Finite Population. 2.3 Probability Distributions and Related Calculations. 2.4 Probability Specifications for Indicator Variables. 2.5 Probability Specifications for (X,Y). 2.6 Bayesian Inference for a Population Quality. 2.7 Interval Estimation. 2.8 Bayesian Procedures for Constructing Interval Estimates, Including Significance Levels and Point Estimates. 2.9 Evaluating the Performance of Procedures. 2.10 Similarity of Bayesian and Randomization--Based Inferences in Many Practical Cases. 3. Underlying Bayesian Theory. 3.1 Introduction and Summary of Repeated--Imputation Inferences. 3.2 Key Results for Analysis When the Multiple Imputations are Repeated Draws from the Posterior Distribution of the Missing Values. 3.3 Inference for Scalar Estimands from a Modest Number of Repeated Completed--Data Means and Variances. 3.4 Significance Levels for Multicomponent Estimands from a Modest Number of Repeated Completed--Data Means and Variance--Covariance Matrices. 3.5 Significance Levels from Repeated Completed--Data Significance Levels. 3.6 Relating the Completed--Data and Completed--Data Posterior Distributions When the Sampling Mechanism is Ignorable. 4. Randomization--Based Evaluations. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 General Conditions for the Randomization--Validity of Infinite--m Repeated--Imputation Inferences. 4.3Examples of Proper and Improper Imputation Methods in a Simple Case with Ignorable Nonresponse. 4.4 Further Discussion of Proper Imputation Methods. 4.5 The Asymptotic Distibution of (Qm,Um,Bm) for Proper Imputation Methods. 4.6 Evaluations of Finite--m Inferences with Scalar Estimands. 4.7 Evaluation of Significance Levels from the Moment--Based Statistics Dm and Dm with Multicomponent Estimands. 4.8 Evaluation of Significance Levels Based on Repeated Significance Levels. 5. Procedures with Ignorable Nonresponse. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Creating Imputed Values under an Explicit Model. 5.3 Some Explicit Imputation Models with Univariate YI and Covariates. 5.4 Monotone Patterns of Missingness in Multivariate YI. 5.5 Missing Social Security Benefits in the Current Population Survey. 5.6 Beyond Monotone Missingness. 6. Procedures with Nonignorable Nonresponse. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Nonignorable Nonresponse with Univariate YI and No XI. 6.3 Formal Tasks with Nonignorable Nonresponse. 6.4 Illustrating Mixture Modeling Using Educational Testing Service Data. 6.5 Illustrating Selection Modeling Using CPS Data. 6.6 Extensions to Surveys with Follow--Ups. 6.7 Follow--Up Response in a Survey of Drinking Behavior Among Men of Retirement Age. References. Author Index. Subject Index. Appendix I. Report Written for the Social Security Administration in 1977. Appendix II. Report Written for the Census Bureau in 1983.

14,574 citations

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TL;DR: 2 general approaches that come highly recommended: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian multiple imputation (MI) are presented and may eventually extend the ML and MI methods that currently represent the state of the art.

Abstract: Statistical procedures for missing data have vastly improved, yet misconception and unsound practice still abound. The authors frame the missing-data problem, review methods, offer advice, and raise issues that remain unresolved. They clear up common misunderstandings regarding the missing at random (MAR) concept. They summarize the evidence against older procedures and, with few exceptions, discourage their use. They present, in both technical and practical language, 2 general approaches that come highly recommended: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian multiple imputation (MI). Newer developments are discussed, including some for dealing with missing data that are not MAR. Although not yet in the mainstream, these procedures may eventually extend the ML and MI methods that currently represent the state of the art.

10,568 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that ignoring the process that causes missing data when making sampling distribution inferences about the parameter of the data, θ, is generally appropriate if and only if the missing data are missing at random and the observed data are observed at random, and then such inferences are generally conditional on the observed pattern of missing data.

Abstract: Two results are presented concerning inference when data may be missing. First, ignoring the process that causes missing data when making sampling distribution inferences about the parameter of the data, θ, is generally appropriate if and only if the missing data are “missing at random” and the observed data are “observed at random,” and then such inferences are generally conditional on the observed pattern of missing data. Second, ignoring the process that causes missing data when making Bayesian inferences about θ is generally appropriate if and only if the missing data are missing at random and the parameter of the missing data is “independent” of θ. Examples and discussion indicating the implications of these results are included.

8,197 citations