Topic

# Mixed model

About: Mixed model is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3367 publications have been published within this topic receiving 159129 citations. The topic is also known as: mixed effects model.

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TL;DR: The lmerTest package extends the 'lmerMod' class of the lme4 package, by overloading the anova and summary functions by providing p values for tests for fixed effects, and implementing the Satterthwaite's method for approximating degrees of freedom for the t and F tests.

Abstract: One of the frequent questions by users of the mixed model function lmer of the lme4 package has been: How can I get p values for the F and t tests for objects returned by lmer? The lmerTest package extends the 'lmerMod' class of the lme4 package, by overloading the anova and summary functions by providing p values for tests for fixed effects. We have implemented the Satterthwaite's method for approximating degrees of freedom for the t and F tests. We have also implemented the construction of Type I - III ANOVA tables. Furthermore, one may also obtain the summary as well as the anova table using the Kenward-Roger approximation for denominator degrees of freedom (based on the KRmodcomp function from the pbkrtest package). Some other convenient mixed model analysis tools such as a step method, that performs backward elimination of nonsignificant effects - both random and fixed, calculation of population means and multiple comparison tests together with plot facilities are provided by the package as well.

12,305 citations

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30 May 2017

TL;DR: In this article, a simple linear model is proposed to describe the geometry of linear models, and a general linear model specification in R is presented. But the theory of linear model theory is not discussed.

Abstract: LINEAR MODELS A simple linear model Linear models in general The theory of linear models The geometry of linear modelling Practical linear models Practical modelling with factors General linear model specification in R Further linear modelling theory Exercises GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS The theory of GLMs Geometry of GLMs GLMs with R Likelihood Exercises INTRODUCING GAMS Introduction Univariate smooth functions Additive models Generalized additive models Summary Exercises SOME GAM THEORY Smoothing bases Setting up GAMs as penalized GLMs Justifying P-IRLS Degrees of freedom and residual variance estimation Smoothing Parameter Estimation Criteria Numerical GCV/UBRE: performance iteration Numerical GCV/UBRE optimization by outer iteration Distributional results Confidence interval performance Further GAM theory Other approaches to GAMs Exercises GAMs IN PRACTICE: mgcv Cherry trees again Brain imaging example Air pollution in Chicago example Mackerel egg survey example Portuguese larks example Other packages Exercises MIXED MODELS and GAMMs Mixed models for balanced data Linear mixed models in general Linear mixed models in R Generalized linear mixed models GLMMs with R Generalized additive mixed models GAMMs with R Exercises APPENDICES A Some matrix algebra B Solutions to exercises Bibliography Index

8,393 citations

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TL;DR: The glmmTMB package fits many types of GLMMs and extensions, including models with continuously distributed responses, but here the authors focus on count responses and its ability to estimate the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution parameterized by the mean is unique.

Abstract: Count data can be analyzed using generalized linear mixed models when observations are correlated in ways that require random effects However, count data are often zero-inflated, containing more zeros than would be expected from the typical error distributions We present a new package, glmmTMB, and compare it to other R packages that fit zero-inflated mixed models The glmmTMB package fits many types of GLMMs and extensions, including models with continuously distributed responses, but here we focus on count responses glmmTMB is faster than glmmADMB, MCMCglmm, and brms, and more flexible than INLA and mgcv for zero-inflated modeling One unique feature of glmmTMB (among packages that fit zero-inflated mixed models) is its ability to estimate the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution parameterized by the mean Overall, its most appealing features for new users may be the combination of speed, flexibility, and its interface’s similarity to lme4

4,497 citations

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TL;DR: This paper is written as a step-by-step tutorial that shows how to fit the two most common multilevel models: (a) school effects models, designed for data on individuals nested within naturally occurring hierarchies (e.g., students within classes); and (b) individual growth models,designed for exploring longitudinal data (on individuals) over time.

Abstract: SAS PROC MIXED is a flexible program suitable for fitting multilevel models, hierarchical linear models, and individual growth models. Its position as an integrated program within the SAS statistic...

2,903 citations