About: Mixed waste is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1509 publications have been published within this topic receiving 10600 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this article, the product consistency test methods A and B are proposed to evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms.
Abstract: This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 1285; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. 1. Scope 1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 6 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, and leachant compositions. This test method is static and can be conducted in stainless steel or PFA TFE-fluorocarbon vessels, or both. Test Method B can specifically be used to evaluate the relative chemical durability characteristics of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms. This test method is applicable to radioactive (nuclear) and mixed, hazardous, and simulated waste forms as defined above. Test Method B cannot be used as a consistency test for production of high level radioactive glass waste forms. 1.2 These test methods must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
TL;DR: Although MSW-derived composts are of low value, they still represent a valuable resource particularly for use in post-industrial environments, and a holistic view should be taken when regulating the use of such composts.
Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of mixed waste streams is becoming increasingly popular as a method for treating municipal solid waste (MSW). Whilst this process can separate many recyclates from mixed waste, the resultant organic residue can contain high levels of heavy metals and physical and biological contaminants. This review assesses the potential end uses and sustainable markets for this organic residue. Critical evaluation reveals that the best option for using this organic resource is in land remediation and restoration schemes. For example, application of MSW-derived composts at acidic heavy metal contaminated sites has ameliorated soil pollution with minimal risk. We conclude that although MSW-derived composts are of low value, they still represent a valuable resource particularly for use in post-industrial environments. A holistic view should be taken when regulating the use of such composts, taking into account the specific situation of application and the environmental pitfalls of alternative disposal routes.
TL;DR: In this article, the resource of biomethane produced from food waste at a state level in the EU was assessed and the resource is dependent on the quantity of food waste available for anaerobic digestion and the specific methane yield from the food waste.
Abstract: This paper assesses the resource of biomethane produced from food waste at a state level in the EU. The resource is dependent on the quantity of food waste available for anaerobic digestion and the specific methane yield from food waste. The specific method of undertaking biomethane potential (BMP) tests was shown to be crucial. BMP tests were carried out at different scales (5 L and 0.5 L) with different sources of inoculum, for both wet and dried substrate samples. The upper bound BMP results for source segregated canteen food waste gave specific methane yields of between 467 and 529 L CH4 per kg volatile solids added. The higher results were associated with acclimatised inoculum and wet samples of food waste. The potential renewable resource of biomethane from food waste is shown to be equivalent to 2.8% of energy in transport in Ireland; this is significant as it surpasses the resource associated with electrifying 10% of the private car fleet in Ireland, which is currently the preferred option for renewable energy in transport in the country. However for this resource to be realised within the EU, source segregation of food waste must be effected. According to the Animal By-Products Regulations, digestate from source segregated food waste may be applied to agricultural land post anaerobic digestion. Digestate from food waste derived from a mixed waste source may not be applied to agricultural land. Thus biomethane from food waste is predicated on source segregation of food waste.
TL;DR: In this article, a multi-methodological assessment of C&DW management showed the need for analysing the environmental performance of a system from different perspectives before decision-making, and that recycling of waste generates greater environmental benefits than energy recovery, but this may not always be the case.
Abstract: A growing amount of construction and demolition waste (CD hence improvements to it would not benefit the system notably. For wood the results were controversial, since the energy recovery generated environmental and economic benefits, but did not increase the recycling rate. Material recovery concepts should be developed, but simultaneously the environmental and economic benefits should be retained. Miscellaneous waste had the potential for increasing recycling and avoiding costs and emissions. Mixed waste was identified as the worst fraction in relation to climate change impacts, costs and material recycling. Applying the BAT approach showed that BAT for waste management needs to be based on system-level rather than installation-level assessments. This multi-methodological assessment of C&DW management showed the need for analysing the environmental performance of a system from different perspectives before decision-making. In general, the recycling of waste generates greater environmental benefits than energy recovery, but this may not always be the case. Regional differences in operations and waste composition may support arguments for differing recycling targets in different regions.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that both resource availability (different waste streams) and environmental factors are key drivers of microbial community dynamics in mesophilic, anaerobic co-digestion.
Abstract: This paper identifies key components of the microbial community involved in the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion (AD) of mixed waste at Rayong Biogas Plant, Thailand. The AD process is separated into three stages: front end treatment (FET); feed holding tank and the main anaerobic digester. The study examines how the microbial community structure was affected by the different stages and found that seeding the waste at the beginning of the process (FET) resulted in community stability. Also, co-digestion of mixed waste supported different bacterial and methanogenic pathways. Typically, acetoclastic methanogenesis was the major pathway catalysed by Methanosaeta but hydrogenotrophs were also supported. Finally, the three-stage AD process means that hydrolysis and acidogenesis is initiated prior to entering the main digester which helps improve the bioconversion efficiency. This paper demonstrates that both resource availability (different waste streams) and environmental factors are key drivers of microbial community dynamics in mesophilic, anaerobic co-digestion.