Topic

# Mobile manipulator

About: Mobile manipulator is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4608 publications have been published within this topic receiving 80670 citations.

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01 Jan 1986

TL;DR: This chapter discusses Jacobians: Velocities and Static Forces, Robot Programming Languages and Systems, and Manipulator Dynamics, which focuses on the role of Jacobians in the control of Manipulators.

Abstract: 1. Introduction. 2. Spatial Descriptions and Transformations. 3. Manipulator Kinematics. 4. Inverse Manipulator Kinematics. 5. Jacobians: Velocities and Static Forces. 6. Manipulator Dynamics. 7. Trajectory Generation. 8. Manipulator Mechanism Design. 9. Linear Control of Manipulators. 10. Nonlinear Control of Manipulators. 11. Force Control of Manipulators. 12. Robot Programming Languages and Systems. 13. Off-Line Programming Systems.

5,891 citations

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TL;DR: This paper reformulated the manipulator con trol problem as direct control of manipulator motion in operational space—the space in which the task is originally described—rather than as control of the task's corresponding joint space motion obtained only after geometric and geometric transformation.

Abstract: This paper presents a unique real-time obstacle avoidance approach for manipulators and mobile robots based on the artificial potential field concept. Collision avoidance, tradi tionally considered a high level planning problem, can be effectively distributed between different levels of control, al lowing real-time robot operations in a complex environment. This method has been extended to moving obstacles by using a time-varying artificial patential field. We have applied this obstacle avoidance scheme to robot arm mechanisms and have used a new approach to the general problem of real-time manipulator control. We reformulated the manipulator con trol problem as direct control of manipulator motion in oper ational space—the space in which the task is originally described—rather than as control of the task's corresponding joint space motion obtained only after geometric and kine matic transformation. Outside the obstacles' regions of influ ence, we caused the end effector to move in a straight line with an...

5,842 citations

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TL;DR: A theory of force control based on formal models of the manipulator and the task geometry is presented, isolating the programmer from the fundamental complexity of low-level manipulator control.

Abstract: Compliant motion of a manipulator occurs when the manipulator position is constrained by the task geometry. Compliant motion may be produced either by a passive mechanical compliance built in to the manipulator, or by an active compliance implemented in the control servo loop. The second method, called force control, is the subject of this paper. In particular a theory of force control based on formal models of the manipulator and the task geometry is presented. The ideal effector is used to model the manipulator, the ideal surface is used to model the task geometry, and the goal trajectory is used to model the desired behavior of the manipulator. Models are also defined for position control and force control, providing a precise semantics for compliant motion primitives in manipulation programming languages. The formalism serves as a simple interface between the manipulator and the programmer, isolating the programmer from the fundamental complexity of low-level manipulator control. A method of automatically synthesizing a restricted class of manipulator programs based on the formal models of task and goal trajectory is also provided by the formalism.

1,519 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the problem of moving a manipulator in minimum time along a specified geometric path subject to input torque/force constraints is considered, and the minimum-time solution is deduced in an algorithm form using phase-plane techniques.

Abstract: Conventionally, robot control algorithms are divided into two stages, namely, path or trajectory planning and path tracking (or path control). This division has been adopted mainly as a means of alleviating difficulties in dealing with complex, coupled manipulator dynamics. Trajectory planning usually determines the timing of manipulator position and velocity without considering its dynamics. Consequently, the simplicity obtained from the division comes at the expense of efficiency in utilizing robot's capabilities. To remove at least partially this inefficiency, this paper considers a solution to the problem of moving a manipulator in minimum time along a specified geometric path subject to input torque/force constraints. We first describe the manipulator dynamics using parametric functions which represent geometric path constraints to be honored for collision avoidance as well as task requirements. Second, constraints on input torques/ forces are converted to those on the parameters. Third, the minimum-time solution is deduced in an algorithm form using phase-plane techniques. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate utility of the trajectory planning method developed.

971 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a real-time obstacle avoidance approach for manipulators and mobile robots based on the "artificial potential field" concept is presented, where collision avoidance, traditionally considered a high level planning problem, can be effectively distributed between different levels of control.

Abstract: This paper presents a unique real-time obstacle avoidance approach for manipulators and mobile robots based on the "artificial potential field" concept. In this approach, collision avoidance, traditionally considered a high level planning problem, can be effectively distributed between different levels of control, allowing real-time robot operations in a complex environment. We have applied this obstacle avoidance scheme to robot arm using a new approach to the general problem of real-time manipulator control. We reformulated the manipulator control problem as direct control of manipulator motion in operational space-the space in which the task is originally described-rather than as control of the task's corresponding joint space motion obtained only after geometric and kinematic transformation. This method has been implemented in the COSMOS system for a PUMA 560 robot. Using visual sensing, real-time collision avoidance demonstrations on moving obstacles have been performed.

909 citations