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About: Modulation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 56045 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 578873 citation(s). more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.102730
Abstract: We propose an electron wave analog of the electro‐optic light modulator. The current modulation in the proposed structure arises from spin precession due to the spin‐orbit coupling in narrow‐gap semiconductors, while magnetized contacts are used to preferentially inject and detect specific spin orientations. This structure may exhibit significant current modulation despite multiple modes, elevated temperatures, or a large applied bias. more

Topics: Optical modulator (58%), Electro-optic modulator (57%), Phase modulation (55%) more

4,043 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/35.54342
Abstract: The general technique of parallel transmission on many carriers, called multicarrier modulation (MCM), is explained. The performance that can be achieved on an undistorted channel and algorithms for achieving that performance are discussed. Ways of dealing with channel impairments and of improving the performance through coding are described, and implementation methods are considered. Duplex operation of MCM and the possible use of this on the general switched telephone network are examined. > more

3,961 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE10067
Ming Liu1, Xiaobo Yin1, Erick Ulin-Avila1, Baisong Geng1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
02 Jun 2011-Nature
Abstract: Graphene, the single-atom-thick form of carbon, holds promise for many applications, notably in electronics where it can complement or be integrated with silicon-based devices. Intense efforts have been devoted to develop a key enabling device, a broadband, fast optical modulator with a small device footprint. Now Liu et al. demonstrate an exciting new possibility for graphene in the area of on-chip optical communication: a graphene-based optical modulator integrated with a silicon chip. This new device relies on the electrical tuning of the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, and achieves modulation of guided light at frequencies over 1 gigahertz, together with a broad operating spectrum. At just 25 square micrometres in area, it is one of the smallest of its type. Integrated optical modulators with high modulation speed, small footprint and large optical bandwidth are poised to be the enabling devices for on-chip optical interconnects1,2. Semiconductor modulators have therefore been heavily researched over the past few years. However, the device footprint of silicon-based modulators is of the order of millimetres, owing to its weak electro-optical properties3. Germanium and compound semiconductors, on the other hand, face the major challenge of integration with existing silicon electronics and photonics platforms4,5,6. Integrating silicon modulators with high-quality-factor optical resonators increases the modulation strength, but these devices suffer from intrinsic narrow bandwidth and require sophisticated optical design; they also have stringent fabrication requirements and limited temperature tolerances7. Finding a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible material with adequate modulation speed and strength has therefore become a task of not only scientific interest, but also industrial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a broadband, high-speed, waveguide-integrated electroabsorption modulator based on monolayer graphene. By electrically tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, we demonstrate modulation of the guided light at frequencies over 1 GHz, together with a broad operation spectrum that ranges from 1.35 to 1.6 µm under ambient conditions. The high modulation efficiency of graphene results in an active device area of merely 25 µm2, which is among the smallest to date. This graphene-based optical modulation mechanism, with combined advantages of compact footprint, low operation voltage and ultrafast modulation speed across a broad range of wavelengths, can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications. more

Topics: Optical modulator (65%), Photonics (59%), Optical communication (54%) more

2,764 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/26.843135
Moe Z. Win1, Robert A. Scholtz2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Attractive features of time-hopping spread-spectrum multiple-access systems employing impulse signal technology are outlined, and emerging design issues are described. Performance of such communications systems in terms of achievable transmission rate and multiple-access capability are estimated for both analog and digital data modulation formats under ideal multiple-access channel conditions. more

Topics: Spread spectrum (58%), Communications system (57%), Modulation (55%) more

2,659 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1971.1090705
Stephen B. Weinstein1, P. Ebert1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The Fourier transform data communication system is a realization of frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) in which discrete Fourier transforms are computed as part of the modulation and demodulation processes. In addition to eliminating the bunks of subcarrier oscillators and coherent demodulators usually required in FDM systems, a completely digital implementation can be built around a special-purpose computer performing the fast Fourier transform. In this paper, the system is described and the effects of linear channel distortion are investigated. Signal design criteria and equalization algorithms are derived and explained. A differential phase modulation scheme is presented that obviates any equalization. more

2,446 Citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jianjun Yu

106 papers, 3.1K citations

Tetsuya Kawanishi

104 papers, 1.4K citations

Nan Chi

51 papers, 1K citations

Takahide Sakamoto

48 papers, 592 citations

Yutaka Murakami

47 papers, 368 citations

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