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Molecular orbital

About: Molecular orbital is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 22218 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 613948 citation(s). The topic is also known as: MO. more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Two extended basis sets (termed 5–31G and 6–31G) consisting of atomic orbitals expressed as fixed linear combinations of Gaussian functions are presented for the first row atoms carbon to fluorine. These basis functions are similar to the 4–31G set [J. Chem. Phys. 54, 724 (1971)] in that each valence shell is split into inner and outer parts described by three and one Gaussian function, respectively. Inner shells are represented by a single basis function taken as a sum of five (5–31G) or six (6–31G) Gaussians. Studies with a number of polyatomic molecules indicate a substantial lowering of calculated total energies over the 4–31G set. Calculated relative energies and equilibrium geometries do not appear to be altered significantly. more

11,910 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
P. C. Hariharan1, John A. Pople1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Polarization functions are added in two steps to a split-valence extended gaussian basis set: d-type gaussians on the first row atoms C. N, O and F and p-type gaussians on hydrogen. The same d-exponent of 0.8 is found to be satisfactory for these four atoms and the hydrogen p-exponent of 1.1 is adequate in their hydrides. The energy lowering due to d functions is found to depend on the local symmetry around the heavy atom. For the particular basis used, the energy lowerings due to d functions for various environments around the heavy atom are tabulated. These bases are then applied to a set of molecules containing up to two heavy atoms to obtain their LCAO-MO-SCF energies. The mean absolute deviation between theory and experiment (where available) for heats of hydrogenation of closed shell species with two non-hydrogen atoms is 4 kcal/mole for the basis set with full polarization. Estimates of hydrogenation energy errors at the Hartree-Fock limit, based on available calculations, are given. more

11,726 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The parametrization and testing of the OPLS all-atom force field for organic molecules and peptides are described. Parameters for both torsional and nonbonded energetics have been derived, while the bond stretching and angle bending parameters have been adopted mostly from the AMBER all-atom force field. The torsional parameters were determined by fitting to rotational energy profiles obtained from ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the RHF/6-31G*//RHF/6-31G* level for more than 50 organic molecules and ions. The quality of the fits was high with average errors for conformational energies of less than 0.2 kcal/mol. The force-field results for molecular structures are also demonstrated to closely match the ab initio predictions. The nonbonded parameters were developed in conjunction with Monte Carlo statistical mechanics simulations by computing thermodynamic and structural properties for 34 pure organic liquids including alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ethers, acetals, thiols, sulfides, disulfides, a... more

10,389 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: With increasing availability of good all‐electron LCAO MO (LCAO molecular orbital) wave functions for molecules, a systematic procedure for obtaining maximum insight from such data has become desirable. An analysis in quantitative form is given here in terms of breakdowns of the electronic population into partial and total ``gross atomic populations,'' or into partial and total ``net atomic populations'' together with ``overlap populations.'' ``Gross atomic populations'' distribute the electrons almost perfectly among the various AOs (atomic orbitals) of the various atoms in the molecule. From these numbers, a definite figure is obtained for the amount of promotion (e.g., from 2s to 2p) in each atom; and also for the gross charge Q on each atom if the bonds are polar. The total overlap population for any pair of atoms in a molecule is in general made up of positive and negative contributions. If the total overlap population between two atoms is positive, they are bonded; if negative, they are antibonded. Tables of gross atomic populations and overlap populations, also gross atomic charges Q, computed from SCF (self‐consistent field) LCAO‐MO data on CO and H2O, are given. The amount of s‐p promotion is found to be nearly the same for the O atom in CO and in H2O (0.14 electron in CO and 0.15e in H2O). For the C atom in CO it is 0.50e. For the N atom in N2 it is 0.26e according to calculations by Scherr. In spite of very strong polarity in the π bonds in CO, the σ and π overlap populations are very similar to those in N2. In CO the total overlap population for the π electrons is about twice that for the σ electrons. The most easily ionized electrons of CO are in an MO such that its gross atomic population is 94% localized on the carbon atom; these electrons account for the (weak) electron donor properties of CO. A comparison between changes of bond lengths observed on removal of an electron from one or another MO of CO and H2, and corresponding changes in computed overlap populations, shows good correlation. Several other points of interest are discussed. more

8,698 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An extended basis set of atomic functions expressed as fixed linear combinations of Gaussian functions is presented for hydrogen and the first‐row atoms carbon to fluorine. In this set, described as 4–31 G, each inner shell is represented by a single basis function taken as a sum of four Gaussians and each valence orbital is split into inner and outer parts described by three and one Gaussian function, respectively. The expansion coefficients and Gaussian exponents are determined by minimizing the total calculated energy of the atomic ground state. This basis set is then used in single‐determinant molecular‐orbital studies of a group of small polyatomic molecules. Optimization of valence‐shell scaling factors shows that considerable rescaling of atomic functions occurs in molecules, the largest effects being observed for hydrogen and carbon. However, the range of optimum scale factors for each atom is small enough to allow the selection of a standard molecular set. The use of this standard basis gives theoretical equilibrium geometries in reasonable agreement with experiment. more

7,677 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

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