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Momentum

About: Momentum is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 19070 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 367167 citation(s). The topic is also known as: linear momentum & translational momentum.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A general, numerical, marching procedure is presented for the calculation of the transport processes in three-dimensional flows characterised by the presence of one coordinate in which physical influences are exerted in only one direction. Such flows give rise to parabolic differential equations and so can be called three-dimensional parabolic flows. The procedure can be regarded as a boundary-layer method, provided it is recognised that, unlike earlier published methods with this name, it takes full account of the cross-stream diffusion of momentum, etc., and of the pressure variation in the cross-stream plane. The pressure field is determined by: first calculating an intermediate velocity field based on an estimated pressure field; and then obtaining appropriate correction so as to satisfy the continuity equation. To illustrate the procedure, calculations are presented for the developing laminar flow and heat transfer in a square duct with a laterally-moving wall.

5,560 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A theory is initiated, based on the equations of motion of a gas, for the purpose of estimating the sound radiated from a fluid flow, with rigid boundaries, which as a result of instability contains regular fluctuations or turbulence. The sound field is that which would be produced by a static distribution of acoustic quadrupoles whose instantaneous strength per unit volume is ρv i v j + p ij - a 2 0 ρ δ ij , where ρ is the density, v i the velocity vector, p ij the compressive stress tensor, and a 0 the velocity of sound outside the flow. This quadrupole strength density may be approximated in many cases as ρ 0 v i v j . The radiation field is deduced by means of retarded potential solutions. In it, the intensity depends crucially on the frequency as well as on the strength of the quadrupoles, and as a result increases in proportion to a high power, near the eighth, of a typical velocity U in the flow. Physically, the mechanism of conversion of energy from kinetic to acoustic is based on fluctuations in the flow of momentum across fixed surfaces, and it is explained in § 2 how this accounts both for the relative inefficiency of the process and for the increase of efficiency with U . It is shown in § 7 how the efficiency is also increased, particularly for the sound emitted forwards, in the case of fluctuations convected at a not negligible Mach number.

4,380 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The local density theory is developed by Hohenberg, Kohn and Sham is extended to the spin polarized case. A spin dependent one- electron potential pertinent to ground state properties is obtained from calculations of the total energy per electron made with a 'bubble' (or random phase) type of dielectric function. The potential is found to be well represented by an analytic expression corresponding to a shifted and rescaled spin dependent Slater potential. To test this potential the momentum dependent spin susceptibility of an electron gas is calculated. The results compare favourably with available information from other calculations and from experiment. The potential obtained in this paper should be useful for split band calculations of magnetic materials.

3,587 citations


MonographDOI
01 Jan 1972-
Abstract: This chapter contains sections titled: The Reynolds equations, Elements of the kinetic theory of gases, Estimates of the Reynolds stress, Turbulent heat transfer, Turbulent shear flow near a rigid wall

3,268 citations


Book
01 Jan 1969-
Abstract: Providing a unified treatment of momentum transfer (fluid mechanics), heat transfer and mass transfer. This new edition includes more modern applications of the basic material, and to provide many new homework exercises at the end of each chapter.

1,944 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202214
2021886
2020709
2019705
2018647
2017709

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Vicente Garzó

27 papers, 957 citations

Masud Mansuripur

21 papers, 607 citations

Horst Schmidt-Böcking

20 papers, 1.2K citations

Reinhard Dörner

19 papers, 1.2K citations

Ottmar Jagutzki

13 papers, 1K citations