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About: Monarchy is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6891 publications have been published within this topic receiving 82398 citations.

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01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, the three identities of France: the Three Identities of France I, Fleur de Lys, and the King and his State II, the French Revolution and the French National Consciousness.
Abstract: Introduction 1. God's Firstborn: England Reflection of the National Consciousness in Discourse and Sentiment The New Aristocracy, the New Monarchy, and the Protestant Reformation The English Bible, the Bloody Regiment of Queen Mary, and the Burning Matter of Dignity England as God's Peculiar People, and the Token of His Love The Sound of Their Voices The Changing Position of the Crown and Religion in the National Consciousness A Land of Experimental Knowledge 2. The Three Identities of France I. The Development of Pre-National French Identity France--a Church, and the Faith of the "Fleur de Lys" Heresy and Its Child The King and His State II. The Social Bases of the Nationalization of French Identity and the Character of the Nascent National Consciousness Turns of the Social Wheel: The Plight of the French Aristocracy The Perilous Escape: Redefinition and Reorganization of the Noblesse The Birth of the French Nation Nation, the Supreme Being Competition with England and Ressentiment A Note on Non-Elite Nationalism 3. The Scythian Rome: Russia Perestroika in the Eighteenth Century The Crisis of the Nobility The West and Ressentiment The Laying of the Foundations Transvaluation of Values: The Crystallization of the Matrix of Russian Nationalism The Two-Headed Eagle 4. The Final Solution of Infinite Longing: Germany I. The Setting The Conception and Miscarriage of Nationalism in the Sixteenth Century The Early Evolution of the Concept of the State The Insouciance of German Nobility prior to the Nineteenth Century Bildungsburgertum: The Dangerous Class II. The Birth of the Spirit: The Preparation of the Mold for the German National Consciousness Aufklarung Pietism Romanticism III. The Materialization of the Spirit The Impact of the French Revolution The Birth of German Nationalism The Finishing Touch: Ressentiment The Twin Blossoms of the Blue Flower 5. In Pursuit of the Ideal Nation: The Unfolding of Nationality in America America as a New England The Separation A Union Begun by Necessity The Tug-of-War: The Persisting Threat of Secession and the Development of National Unity Inconsistencies and Tensions The Trial and Completion of American Nationality Afterword Notes Index

1,457 citations

01 Jan 1974
TL;DR: The political nature of Absolutism has long been a subject of controversy within historical materialism as discussed by the authors, and the question of the relations between monarchy and nobility institutionalised by it suggests a general periodization.
Abstract: The political nature of Absolutism has long been a subject of controversy within historical materialism. Developing considerations advanced in Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism, this book situates the Absolutist states of the early modern epoch against the prior background of European feudalism. It is divided into two parts. The first discusses the overall structures of Absolutism as a state-system in Western Europe, from the Renaissance onwards; and the difficult question of the relations between monarchy and nobility institutionalised by it, for which it suggests a general periodization. It then looks in turn at the trajectory of each of the specific Absolutist states in the dominant countries of the West - Spain, France, England and Sweden, set off against the case of Italy, where no major indigenous Absolutism developed. The second part of the work sketches a comparative prospect of Absolutism in Eastern Europe. It begins with an enquiry into the reasons why the divergent social conditions in the more backward half of the continent should have produced political forms apparently similar to those of the more advanced West. The peculiarities, as well as affinities, of Eastern Absolutism as a distinct type of royal state, are examined. The variegated monarchies of Prussia, Austria and Russia are surveyed, and the lessons asked of the counter-example of Poland. Finally, the structure of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans is taken as an external gauge by which the singularity of Absolutism as a European phenomenon is assessed. The work ends with some observations on the special position occupied by European development within universal history, which draws themes from both Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism and Lineages of the Absolutist State together into a single argument -- within their common limits -- as materials for debate. Two postscript notes treat, respectively, the notion of the 'Asiatic mode of production,' with particular reference to Islamic and Chinese history, and the experience of Japanese feudalism, as relevant controls for a study of the evolution of Europe up to the advent of industrial capitalism.

1,195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The rise of Western Europe after 1500 is due largely to growth in countries with access to the Atlantic Ocean and with substantial trade with the New World, Africa, and Asia via the Atlantic as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The rise of Western Europe after 1500 is due largely to growth in countries with access to the Atlantic Ocean and with substantial trade with the New World, Africa, and Asia via the Atlantic. This trade and the associatedcolonialism affected Europe not only directly, but also indirectly by inducing institutional change. Where "initial" political institutions (those established before 1500) placed significant checks on the monarchy, the growth of Atlantic trade strengthened merchant groups by constraining the power of the monarchy, and helped merchants obtain changes in institutions to protect property rights. These changes were central to subsequent economic growth.

1,023 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The King's Two Bodies as mentioned in this paper is a concept of the two bodies of a monarch, the body politic and the body natural, which was introduced by Kantorowicz in the early 20th century.
Abstract: In 1957 Ernst Kantorowicz published a book that would be the guide for generations of scholars through the arcane mysteries of medieval political theology. In "The King's Two Bodies," Kantorowicz traces the historical problem posed by the "King's two bodies"--the body politic and the body natural--back to the Middle Ages and demonstrates, by placing the concept in its proper setting of medieval thought and political theory, how the early-modern Western monarchies gradually began to develop a "political theology." The king's natural body has physical attributes, suffers, and dies, naturally, as do all humans; but the king's other body, the spiritual body, transcends the earthly and serves as a symbol of his office as majesty with the divine right to rule. The notion of the two bodies allowed for the continuity of monarchy even when the monarch died, as summed up in the formulation "The king is dead. Long live the king." Bringing together liturgical works, images, and polemical material, "The King's Two Bodies" explores the long Christian past behind this "political theology." It provides a subtle history of how commonwealths developed symbolic means for establishing their sovereignty and, with such means, began to establish early forms of the nation-state. Kantorowicz fled Nazi Germany in 1938, after refusing to sign a Nazi loyalty oath, and settled in the United States. While teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, he once again refused to sign an oath of allegiance, this one designed to identify Communist Party sympathizers. He resigned as a result of the controversy and moved to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he remained for the rest of his life, and where he wrote "The King's Two Bodies."

788 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Mar 2012
TL;DR: The concept of "invented tradition" was introduced by as mentioned in this paper, who defined a broad but not imprecise sense of tradition, which includes both those actually invented, constructed and formally instituted and those emerging in a less easily traceable manner within a brief and dateable period and establishing themselves with great rapidity.
Abstract: Nothing appears more ancient, and linked to an immemorial past, than the pageantry which surrounds British monarchy in its public ceremonial manifestations. Yet, as a chapter in this book establishes, in its modern form it is the product of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. ‘Traditions’ which appear or claim to be old are often quite recent in origin and sometimes invented. Anyone familiar with the colleges of ancient British universities will be able to think of the institution of such ‘traditions’ on a local scale, though some – like the annual Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols in the chapel of King's College, Cambridge on Christmas Eve – may become generalized through the modern mass medium of radio. This observation formed the starting-point of a conference organized by the historical journal Past & Present , which in turn forms the basis of the present book. The term ‘invented tradition’ is used in a broad, but not imprecise sense. It includes both ‘ traditions’ actually invented, constructed and formally instituted and those emerging in a less easily traceable manner within a brief and dateable period – a matter of a few years perhaps – and establishing themselves with great rapidity. The royal Christmas broadcast in Britain (instituted in 1932) is an example of the first; the appearance and development of the practices associated with the Cup Final in British Association Football, of the second. It is evident that not all of them are equally permanent, but it is their appearance and establishment rather than their chances of survival which are our primary concern.

722 citations

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