About: Motor neuron is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7759 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 392117 citation(s). The topic is also known as: motoneuron & efferent neuron.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Abstract: Mutations of human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) are found in about 20 percent of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Expression of high levels of human SOD containing a substitution of glycine to alanine at position 93--a change that has little effect on enzyme activity--caused motor neuron disease in transgenic mice. The mice became paralyzed in one or more limbs as a result of motor neuron loss from the spinal cord and died by 5 to 6 months of age. The results show that dominant, gain-of-function mutations in SOD contribute to the pathogenesis of familial ALS.
TL;DR: Inferior parietal lobule neurons were studied when monkeys performed motor acts embedded in different actions and when they observed similar acts done by an experimenter to allow the observer to understand the agent's intentions.
Abstract: Inferior parietal lobule (IPL) neurons were studied when monkeys performed motor acts embedded in different actions and when they observed similar acts done by an experimenter. Most motor IPL neurons coding a specific act (e.g., grasping) showed markedly different activations when this act was part of different actions (e.g., for eating or for placing). Many motor IPL neurons also discharged during the observation of acts done by others. Most responded differentially when the same observed act was embedded in a specific action. These neurons fired during the observation of an act, before the beginning of the subsequent acts specifying the action. Thus, these neurons not only code the observed motor act but also allow the observer to understand the agent's intentions.
TL;DR: It is shown that developmentally relevant signaling factors can induce mouse embryonic stem cells to differentiate into spinal progenitor cells, and subsequently into motor neurons, through a pathway recapitulating that used in vivo.
Abstract: Inductive signals and transcription factors involved in motor neuron generation have been identified, raising the question of whether these developmental insights can be used to direct stem cells to a motor neuron fate. We show that developmentally relevant signaling factors can induce mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into spinal progenitor cells, and subsequently into motor neurons, through a pathway recapitulating that used in vivo. ES cell-derived motor neurons can populate the embryonic spinal cord, extend axons, and form synapses with target muscles. Thus, inductive signals involved in normal pathways of neurogenesis can direct ES cells to form specific classes of CNS neurons.
TL;DR: Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase cause a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and four lines of mice accumulating one of these mutant proteins (G37R) develop severe, progressive motor neuron disease.
Abstract: Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Four linesof mice accumulating oneof these mutant proteins (G37R) develop severe, progressive motor neuron disease. At lower levels of mutant accumulation, pathology is restricted to lower motor neurons, whereas higher levels cause more severe abnormalities and affect a variety of other neuronal populations. The most obvious cellular abnormality is the presence in axons and dendrites of membrane-bounded vacuoles, which appear to be derived from degenerating mitochondria. Since multiple lines of mice expressing wild-type human SOD1 at similar and higher levels do not show disease, the disease in mice expressing the G37R mutant SOD1 must arise from the acquisition of an adverse property by the mutant enzyme, rather than elevation or loss of SOD1 activity.
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: This Seminar summarises current concepts about the origin of the disease, what predisposes patients to develop the disorder, and why all cases of ALS are not the same.
Abstract: Background: Components of the innate immune complement system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, a comprehensive examination of complement expression in this disease has not been performed. This study therefore aimed to determine the expression of complement components (C1qB, C4, factor B, C3/C3b, C5 and CD88) and regulators (CD55 and CD59a) in the lumbar spinal cord of hSOD1 G93A mice during defined disease stages. Methods: hSOD1 G93A and wild-type mice were examined at four different ages of disease progression. mRNA and protein expression of complement components and regulators were examined using quantitative PCR, western blotting and ELISA. Localisation of complement components within lumbar spinal cord was investigated using immunohistochemistry. Statistical differences between hSOD1 G93A and wild-type mice were analysed using a two-tailed t-test at each stage of disease progression. Results: We found several early complement factors increased as disease progressed, whilst complement regulators decreased; suggesting overall increased complement activation through the classical or alternative pathways in hSOD1 G93A mice. CD88 was also increased during disease progression, with immunolocalisation demonstrating expression on motor neurons and increasing expression on microglia surrounding the regions of motor neuron death. Conclusions: These results indicate that local complement activation and increased expression of CD88 may contribute to motor neuron death and ALS pathology in the hSOD1 G93A mouse. Hence, reducing complement-induced
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