About: Movement disorders is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6770 publications have been published within this topic receiving 170025 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This paper describes the changes in neuronal activity in the motor circuit in animal models of hypo- and hyperkinetic disorders and postulates specific disturbances within the basal ganglia-thalamocortical 'motor' circuit.
Abstract: Movement disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction comprise a spectrum of abnormalities that range from the hypokinetic disorders (of which Parkinson's disease is the best-known example) at one extreme to the hyperkinetic disorders (exemplified by Huntington's disease and hemiballismus) at the other. Both extremes of this movement disorder spectrum can be accounted for by postulating specific disturbances within the basal ganglia-thalamocortical 'motor' circuit. In this paper, Mahlon DeLong describes the changes in neuronal activity in the motor circuit in animal models of hypo- and hyperkinetic disorders.
TL;DR: Frontal-subcortical circuits mediate many aspects of human behavior, including executive function deficits occur with lesions of the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, disinhibition with injuries of the orbitofrontal circuit, and apathy with injury to the anterior cingulate circuit.
Abstract: • Objective. —This synthetic review was performed to demonstrate the utility of frontal-subcortical circuits in the explanation of a wide range of human behavioral disorders. Data Sources. —Reports of patients with degenerative disorders or focal lesions involving frontal lobe or linked subcortical structures were chosen from the English literature. Individual case reports and group investigations from peer-reviewed journals were evaluated. Study Selection. —Studies were included if they described patient behavior in detail or reported pertinent neuropsychological findings and had compelling evidence of a disorder affecting frontal-subcortical circuits. Data Extraction. —Information was used if the report from which it was taken met study selection criteria. Data Synthesis. —Five parallel segregated circuits link the frontal lobe and subcortical structures. Clinical syndromes observed with frontal lobe injury are recapitulated with lesions of subcortical member structures of the circuits. Each prefrontal circuit has a signature behavioral syndrome: executive function deficits occur with lesions of the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, disinhibition with lesions of the orbitofrontal circuit, and apathy with injury to the anterior cingulate circuit. Depression, mania, and obsessivecompulsive disorder may also be mediated by frontalsubcortical circuits. Movement disorders identify involvement of the basal ganglia component of frontal-subcortical circuits. Conclusions. —Frontal-subcortical circuits mediate many aspects of human behavior.
TL;DR: Significant modifications have been made to the nosology of insomnia, narcolepsy, and parasomnias in the recently released third edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders.
Abstract: The recently released third edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) is a fully revised version of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine's manual of sleep disorders nosology, published in cooperation with international sleep societies. It is the key reference work for the diagnosis of sleep disorders. The ICSD-3 is built on the same basic outline as the ICSD-2, identifying seven major categories that include insomnia disorders, sleep-related breathing disorders, central disorders of hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, sleep-related movement disorders, parasomnias, and other sleep disorders. Significant modifications have been made to the nosology of insomnia, narcolepsy, and parasomnias. Major features and changes of the manual are reviewed in this article. The rationales for these changes are also discussed.
TL;DR: An international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia provides a new general definition and proposes a new classification and encourages clinicians and researchers to use these innovative definitions and test them in the clinical setting on a variety of patients with Dystonia.
Abstract: This report describes the consen- sus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus devel- opment methodology during 3 in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or inter- mittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often re- petitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be tremulous. Dystonia is often initiated or wors- ened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Dystonia is classified along 2 axes: clinical characteristics, including age at onset, body dis- tribution, temporal pattern and associated features (additional movement disorders or neurological fea- tures); and etiology, which includes nervous system pa- thology and inheritance. The clinical characteristics fall into several specific dystonia syndromes that help to guide diagnosis and treatment. We provide here a new general definition of dystonia and propose a new classi- fication. We encourage clinicians and researchers to use these innovative definition and classification and test them in the clinical setting on a variety of patients with dystonia. V C 2013 Movement Disorder Society
Paris 12 Val de Marne University1, French Institute of Health and Medical Research2, University of Göttingen3, Ghent University4, University Hospital of Lausanne5, University of Lisbon6, university of lille7, Università Campus Bio-Medico8, University of Belgrade9, University of Hamburg10, Turku University Hospital11, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki12, University of Regensburg13, University of Bern14, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich15, University of Siena16, The Catholic University of America17, University College London18, University of Ulm19, Copenhagen University Hospital20, University of Oxford21, University of Barcelona22, University of Tübingen23
TL;DR: There is a sufficient body of evidence to accept with level A (definite efficacy) the analgesic effect of high-frequency rTMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the pain and the antidepressant effect of HF-rT MS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).
Abstract: A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, craving/addiction, and conversion. Despite unavoidable inhomogeneities, there is a sufficient body of evidence to accept with level A (definite efficacy) the analgesic effect of high-frequency (HF) rTMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the pain and the antidepressant effect of HF-rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A Level B recommendation (probable efficacy) is proposed for the antidepressant effect of low-frequency (LF) rTMS of the right DLPFC, HF-rTMS of the left DLPFC for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and LF-rTMS of contralesional M1 in chronic motor stroke. The effects of rTMS in a number of indications reach level C (possible efficacy), including LF-rTMS of the left temporoparietal cortex in tinnitus and auditory hallucinations. It remains to determine how to optimize rTMS protocols and techniques to give them relevance in routine clinical practice. In addition, professionals carrying out rTMS protocols should undergo rigorous training to ensure the quality of the technical realization, guarantee the proper care of patients, and maximize the chances of success. Under these conditions, the therapeutic use of rTMS should be able to develop in the coming years.
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