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Multi-stage flash distillation

About: Multi-stage flash distillation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 712 publications have been published within this topic receiving 12345 citations. The topic is also known as: MSF.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A number of seawater desalination technologies have been developed during the last several decades to augment the supply of water in arid regions of the world as mentioned in this paper, however, many countries are unable to afford these technologies as a fresh water resource.

1,265 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the technical features, energy consumption, environmental considerations, and potential of renewable energy use in driving the main desalination processes are reviewed and analyzed in order to compare the current and projected costs of water produced from conventional and renewable energy-driven processes.
Abstract: Desalination technologies improve water quality, greatly reduce water shortage problems, and improve quality of life and economic status. Two main technologies are currently used in water desalination: thermal (phase-change) processes and membrane processes. The primary thermal distillation processes include multistage flash distillation (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED), and vapor compression (VC). The VC process encompasses two types: mechanical (MVC) and thermal (TVC). The common membrane desalination processes include reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED and EDR). Energy cost, operational and maintenance cost, and capital investment are the main contributors to the water production cost of any of these processes. The energy cost is responsible for about 50% of the produced water cost. For thermal distillation processes (MSF, MED, and TVC), two energy forms are required for the operation: (1) low-temperature heat, which represents the main portion of the energy input and is usually supplied to the system by a number of external sources (e.g., fossil fuel, waste energy, nuclear, solar) and (2) electricity, which is used to drive the system's pumps and other electrical components. For the MVC thermal distillation process, only electricity is needed. For membrane processes (RO and ED), only electricity is required as an energy input. Renewable energy systems such as solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, and geothermal technologies are currently used as energy suppliers for desalination systems. These renewable resources are now a proven technology and remain economically promising for remote regions, where connection to the public electric grid is either not cost effective or feasible, and where water scarcity is severe. As the technologies continue to improve, and as fresh water becomes scarce and fossil fuel energy prices rise, renewable energy desalination becomes more viable economically. The technical features, energy consumption, environmental considerations, and potential of renewable energy use in driving the main desalination processes are reviewed and analyzed in this paper. The current and projected costs of water produced from conventional and renewable-energy-driven processes are discussed and compared.

814 citations

Book
20 Mar 2002
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the resources and need for water desalination, and present an economic analysis of the desalinization process, including factors affecting product cost and economic calculations.
Abstract: Introduction - Resources and need for water desalination, Composition of seawater Single Effect Evaporation - Single effect evaporation, Evaporators Single Effect Evaporation - Vapor Compression, Single effect thermal vapor compression, Single effect mechanical vapor compression Multiple Effect Evaporation - Developments in multiple effect evaporation, Forward feed multiple effect evaporation Multiple Effect Evaporation - Vapor Compression, Parallel feed multiple effect evaporation, Forward feed multiple effect evaporation with thermal vapor compression Multi Stage Flash Distillation - Developments in MSF, MSF flashing stage Reverse Osmosis - Historical background, Elements of membrane separation Reverse Osmosis Feed Treatment, Biofouling, and Membrane Cleaning - Nee for pretreatment processes in RO, Testing methods Associated Processes - Venting of non-condensable gases, Steam jet ejectors Economic Analysis of Desalination Processes - Factors affecting product cost, Elements of economic calculations. Appendices: Thermodynamic Properties Thermodynamic Losses Heat Transfer Coefficients Computer Package.

790 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an overview of recent process improvements in seawater desalination using reverse osmosis (RO), multi stage flash (MSF), multi effect distillation (MED), electrodialysis (ED), and hybrid processes.

388 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed an emerging technology for desalination based on Membrane Distillation (MD), where the main energy requirement is for low-grade thermal energy.

240 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20219
202011
201917
201835
201753
201676