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Multipath propagation

About: Multipath propagation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 27210 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 434603 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using distributed antennas, this work develops and analyzes low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks and develops performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading.
Abstract: We develop and analyze low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals' relaying signals for one another. We outline several strategies employed by the cooperating radios, including fixed relaying schemes such as amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward, selection relaying schemes that adapt based upon channel measurements between the cooperating terminals, and incremental relaying schemes that adapt based upon limited feedback from the destination terminal. We develop performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading, focusing on the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Except for fixed decode-and-forward, all of our cooperative diversity protocols are efficient in the sense that they achieve full diversity (i.e., second-order diversity in the case of two terminals), and, moreover, are close to optimum (within 1.5 dB) in certain regimes. Thus, using distributed antennas, we can provide the powerful benefits of space diversity without need for physical arrays, though at a loss of spectral efficiency due to half-duplex operation and possibly at the cost of additional receive hardware. Applicable to any wireless setting, including cellular or ad hoc networks-wherever space constraints preclude the use of physical arrays-the performance characterizations reveal that large power or energy savings result from the use of these protocols.

12,519 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work develops and analyzes space-time coded cooperative diversity protocols for combating multipath fading across multiple protocol layers in a wireless network and demonstrates that these protocols achieve full spatial diversity in the number of cooperating terminals, not just theNumber of decoding relays, and can be used effectively for higher spectral efficiencies than repetition-based schemes.
Abstract: We develop and analyze space-time coded cooperative diversity protocols for combating multipath fading across multiple protocol layers in a wireless network. The protocols exploit spatial diversity available among a collection of distributed terminals that relay messages for one another in such a manner that the destination terminal can average the fading, even though it is unknown a priori which terminals will be involved. In particular, a source initiates transmission to its destination, and many relays potentially receive the transmission. Those terminals that can fully decode the transmission utilize a space-time code to cooperatively relay to the destination. We demonstrate that these protocols achieve full spatial diversity in the number of cooperating terminals, not just the number of decoding relays, and can be used effectively for higher spectral efficiencies than repetition-based schemes. We discuss issues related to space-time code design for these protocols, emphasizing codes that readily allow for appealing distributed versions.

4,347 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
29 Sep 1998
TL;DR: This paper describes a wireless communication architecture known as vertical BLAST (Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time) or V-BLAST, which has been implemented in real-time in the laboratory and demonstrated spectral efficiencies of 20-40 bps/Hz in an indoor propagation environment at realistic SNRs and error rates.
Abstract: Information theory research has shown that the rich-scattering wireless channel is capable of enormous theoretical capacities if the multipath is properly exploited In this paper, we describe a wireless communication architecture known as vertical BLAST (Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time) or V-BLAST, which has been implemented in real-time in the laboratory Using our laboratory prototype, we have demonstrated spectral efficiencies of 20-40 bps/Hz in an indoor propagation environment at realistic SNRs and error rates To the best of our knowledge, wireless spectral efficiencies of this magnitude are unprecedented and are furthermore unattainable using traditional techniques

3,855 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of indoor multipath propagation measurements using 10 ns, 1.5 GHz, radarlike pulses are presented for a medium-size office building, and a simple statistical multipath model of the indoor radio channel appears to be extendable to other buildings.
Abstract: The results of indoor multipath propagation measurements using 10 ns, 1.5 GHz, radarlike pulses are presented for a medium-size office building. The observed channel was very slowly time varying, with the delay spread extending over a range up to about 200 ns and rms values of up to about 50 ns. The attenuation varied over a 60 dB dynamic range. A simple statistical multipath model of the indoor radio channel is also presented, which fits our measurements well, and more importantly, appears to be extendable to other buildings. With this model, the received signal rays arrive in clusters. The rays have independent uniform phases, and independent Rayleigh amplitudes with variances that decay exponentially with cluster and ray delays. The clusters, and the rays within the cluster, form Poisson arrival processes with different, but fixed, rates. The clusters are formed by the building superstructure, while the individual rays are formed by objects in the vicinities of the transmitter and the receiver.

3,184 citations

Book
Andrew J. Viterbi1
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: Generating Pseudorandom Signals (Pseudonoise) from PseudOrandom Sequences by Modulation and Demodulation of Spread Spectrum Signals in Multipath and Multiple Access Interference.
Abstract: 1. Introduction. Definition and Purpose. Basic Limitations of the Conventional Approach. Spread Spectrum Principles. Organization of the Book. 2. Random and Pseudorandom Signal Generation. Purpose. Pseudorandom Sequences. Maximal Length Linear Shift Register Sequences. Randomness Properties of MLSR Sequences. Conclusion. Generating Pseudorandom Signals (Pseudonoise) from Pseudorandom Sequences. First- and Second-Order Statistics of Demodulator Output in Multiple Access Interference. Statistics for QPSK Modulation by Pseudorandom Sequences. Examples. Bound for Bandlimited Spectrum. Error Probability for BPSK or QPSK with Constant Signals in Additive Gaussian Noise and Interference. Appendix 2A: Optimum Receiver Filter for Bandlimited Spectrum. 3. Synchronization of Pseudorandom Signals. Purpose. Acquisition of Pseudorandom Signal Timing. Hypothesis Testing for BPSK Spreading. Hypothesis Testing for QPSK Spreading. Effect of Frequency Error. Additional Degradation When N is Much Less Than One Period. Detection and False Alarm Probabilities. Fixed Signals in Gaussian Noise (L=1). Fixed Signals in Gaussian Noise with Postdetection Integration (L>1). Rayleigh Fading Signals (L>/=1). The Search Procedure and Acquisition Time. Single-Pass Serial Search (Simplified). Single-Pass Serial Search (Complete). Multiple Dwell Serial Search. Time Tracking of Pseudorandom Signals. Early-Late Gate Measurement Statistics. Time Tracking Loop. Carrier Synchronization. Appendix 3A: Likelihood Functions and Probability Expressions. Bayes and Neyman-Pearson Hypothesis Testing. Coherent Reception in Additive White Gaussian Noise. Noncoherent Reception in AWGN for Unfaded Signals. Noncoherent Reception of Multiple Independent Observations of Unfaded Signals in AWGN. Noncoherent Reception of Rayleigh-Faded Signals in AWGN. 4. Modulation and Demodulation of Spread Spectrum Signals in Multipath and Multiple Access Interference. Purpose. Chernoff and Battacharyya Bounds. Bounds for Gaussian Noise Channel. Chernoff Bound for Time-Synchronous Multiple Access Interference with BPSK Spreading. Chernoff Bound for Time-Synchronous Multiple Access Interference with QPSK Spreading. Improving the Chernoff Bound by a Factor of 2. Multipath Propagation: Signal Structure and Exploitation. Pilot-Aided Coherent Multipath Demodulation. Chernoff Bounds on Error Probability for Coherent Demodulation with Known Path Parameters. Rayleigh and Rician Fading Multipath Components. Noncoherent Reception. Quasi-optimum Noncoherent Multipath Reception for M-ary Orthogonal Modulation. Performance Bounds. Search Performance for Noncoherent Orthogonal M-ary Demodulators. Power Measurement and Control for Noncoherent Orthogonal M-ary Demodulators. Power Control Loop Performance. Power Control Implications. Appendix 4A: Chernoff Bound with Imperfect Parameter Estimates. 5. Coding and Interleaving. Purpose. Interleaving to Achieve Diversity. Forward Error Control Coding - Another Means to Exploit Redundancy. Convolutional Code Structure. Maximum Likelihood Decoder - Viterbi Algorithm. Generalization of the Preceding Example. Convolutional Code Performance Evaluation. Error Probability for Tailed-off Block. Bit Error Probability. Generalizations of Error Probability Computation. Catastrophic Codes. Generalization to Arbitrary Memoryless Channels - Coherent and Noncoherent. Error Bounds for Binary-Input, Output-Symmetric Channels with Integer Metrics. A Near-Optimal Class of Codes for Coherent Spread Spectrum Multiple Access. Implementation. Decoder Implementation. Generating Function and Performance. Performance Comparison and Applicability. Orthogonal Convolutional Codes for Noncoherent Demodulation of Rayleigh Fading Signals. Implementation. Performance for L-Path Rayleigh Fading. Conclusions and Caveats. Appendix 5A: Improved Bounds for Symmetric Memoryless Channels and the AWGN Channel. Appendix 5B: Upper Bound on Free Distance of Rate 1/n Convolutional Codes. 6. Capacity, Coverage, and Control of Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Networks. General. Reverse Link Power Control. Multiple Cell Pilot Tracking and Soft Handoff. Other-Cell Interference. Propagation Model. Single-Cell Reception - Hard Handoff. Soft Handoff Reception by the Better of the Two Nearest Cells. Soft Handoff Reception by the Best of Multiple Cells. Cell Coverage Issues with Hard and Soft Handoff. Hard Handoff. Soft Handoff. Erlang Capacity of Reverse Links. Erlang Capacity for Conventional Assigned-Slot Multiple Access. Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Outage - Single Cell and Perfect Power Control. Outage with Multiple-Cell Interference. Outage with Imperfect Power Control. An Approximate Explicit Formula for Capacity with Imperfect Power Control. Designing for Minimum Transmitted Power. Capacity Requirements for Initial Accesses. Erlang Capacity of Forward Links. Forward Link Power Allocation. Soft Handoff Impact on Forward Link. Orthogonal Signals for Same-Cell Users. Interference Reduction with Multisectored and Distributed Antennas. Interference Cancellation. Epilogue. References and Bibliography. Index.

2,780 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202214
2021651
2020958
20191,106
20181,083
20171,156