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Multivariate random variable

About: Multivariate random variable is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6559 publications have been published within this topic receiving 289820 citations. The topic is also known as: random vector.

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2001
TL;DR: Internal estimates monitor error, strength, and correlation and these are used to show the response to increasing the number of features used in the forest, and are also applicable to regression.
Abstract: Random forests are a combination of tree predictors such that each tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest. The generalization error for forests converges a.s. to a limit as the number of trees in the forest becomes large. The generalization error of a forest of tree classifiers depends on the strength of the individual trees in the forest and the correlation between them. Using a random selection of features to split each node yields error rates that compare favorably to Adaboost (Y. Freund & R. Schapire, Machine Learning: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International conference, aaa, 148–156), but are more robust with respect to noise. Internal estimates monitor error, strength, and correlation and these are used to show the response to increasing the number of features used in the splitting. Internal estimates are also used to measure variable importance. These ideas are also applicable to regression.

79,257 citations

01 Jan 1965
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the concept of a Random Variable, the meaning of Probability, and the axioms of probability in terms of Markov Chains and Queueing Theory.
Abstract: Part 1 Probability and Random Variables 1 The Meaning of Probability 2 The Axioms of Probability 3 Repeated Trials 4 The Concept of a Random Variable 5 Functions of One Random Variable 6 Two Random Variables 7 Sequences of Random Variables 8 Statistics Part 2 Stochastic Processes 9 General Concepts 10 Random Walk and Other Applications 11 Spectral Representation 12 Spectral Estimation 13 Mean Square Estimation 14 Entropy 15 Markov Chains 16 Markov Processes and Queueing Theory

13,886 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this article, upper bounds for the probability that the sum S of n independent random variables exceeds its mean ES by a positive number nt are derived for certain sums of dependent random variables such as U statistics.
Abstract: Upper bounds are derived for the probability that the sum S of n independent random variables exceeds its mean ES by a positive number nt. It is assumed that the range of each summand of S is bounded or bounded above. The bounds for Pr {S – ES ≥ nt} depend only on the endpoints of the ranges of the summands and the mean, or the mean and the variance of S. These results are then used to obtain analogous inequalities for certain sums of dependent random variables such as U statistics and the sum of a random sample without replacement from a finite population.

8,655 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An efficient algorithm is proposed, which allows the computation of the ICA of a data matrix within a polynomial time and may actually be seen as an extension of the principal component analysis (PCA).

8,522 citations

01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: In this paper, Glommary et al. proposed a multilevel regression model with a random intercept model to estimate within-and between-group regressions, which is based on a hierarchical linear model.
Abstract: Preface second edition Preface to first edition Introduction Multilevel analysis Probability models This book Prerequisites Notation Multilevel Theories, Multi-Stage Sampling and Multilevel Models Dependence as a nuisance Dependence as an interesting phenomenon Macro-level, micro-level, and cross-level relations Glommary Statistical Treatment of Clustered Data Aggregation Disaggregation The intraclass correlation Within-group and between group variance Testing for group differences Design effects in two-stage samples Reliability of aggregated variables Within-and between group relations Regressions Correlations Estimation of within-and between-group correlations Combination of within-group evidence Glommary The Random Intercept Model Terminology and notation A regression model: fixed effects only Variable intercepts: fixed or random parameters? When to use random coefficient models Definition of the random intercept model More explanatory variables Within-and between-group regressions Parameter estimation 'Estimating' random group effects: posterior means Posterior confidence intervals Three-level random intercept models Glommary The Hierarchical Linear Model Random slopes Heteroscedasticity Do not force ?01 to be 0! Interpretation of random slope variances Explanation of random intercepts and slopes Cross-level interaction effects A general formulation of fixed and random parts Specification of random slope models Centering variables with random slopes? Estimation Three or more levels Glommary Testing and Model Specification Tests for fixed parameters Multiparameter tests for fixed effects Deviance tests More powerful tests for variance parameters Other tests for parameters in the random part Confidence intervals for parameters in the random part Model specification Working upward from level one Joint consideration of level-one and level-two variables Concluding remarks on model specification Glommary How Much Does the Model Explain? Explained variance Negative values of R2? Definition of the proportion of explained variance in two-level models Explained variance in three-level models Explained variance in models with random slopes Components of variance Random intercept models Random slope models Glommary Heteroscedasticity Heteroscedasticity at level one Linear variance functions Quadratic variance functions Heteroscedasticity at level two Glommary Missing Data General issues for missing data Implications for design Missing values of the dependent variable Full maximum likelihood Imputation The imputation method Putting together the multiple results Multiple imputations by chained equations Choice of the imputation model Glommary Assumptions of the Hierarchical Linear Model Assumptions of the hierarchical linear model Following the logic of the hierarchical linear model Include contextual effects Check whether variables have random effects Explained variance Specification of the fixed part Specification of the random part Testing for heteroscedasticity What to do in case of heteroscedasticity Inspection of level-one residuals Residuals at level two Influence of level-two units More general distributional assumptions Glommary Designing Multilevel Studies Some introductory notes on power Estimating a population mean Measurement of subjects Estimating association between variables Cross-level interaction effects Allocating treatment to groups or individuals Exploring the variance structure The intraclass correlation Variance parameters Glommary Other Methods and Models Bayesian inference Sandwich estimators for standard errors Latent class models Glommary Imperfect Hierarchies A two-level model with a crossed random factor Crossed random effects in three-level models Multiple membership models Multiple membership multiple classification models Glommary Survey Weights Model-based and design-based inference Descriptive and analytic use of surveys Two kinds of weights Choosing between model-based and design-based analysis Inclusion probabilities and two-level weights Exploring the informativeness of the sampling design Example: Metacognitive strategies as measured in the PISA study Sampling design Model-based analysis of data divided into parts Inclusion of weights in the model How to assign weights in multilevel models Appendix Matrix expressions for the single-level estimators Glommary Longitudinal Data Fixed occasions The compound symmetry models Random slopes The fully multivariate model Multivariate regression analysis Explained variance Variable occasion designs Populations of curves Random functions Explaining the functions 2741524 Changing covariates Autocorrelated residuals Glommary Multivariate Multilevel Models Why analyze multiple dependent variables simultaneously? The multivariate random intercept model Multivariate random slope models Glommary Discrete Dependent Variables Hierarchical generalized linear models Introduction to multilevel logistic regression Heterogeneous proportions The logit function: Log-odds The empty model The random intercept model Estimation Aggregation Further topics on multilevel logistic regression Random slope model Representation as a threshold model Residual intraclass correlation coefficient Explained variance Consequences of adding effects to the model Ordered categorical variables Multilevel event history analysis Multilevel Poisson regression Glommary Software Special software for multilevel modeling HLM MLwiN The MIXOR suite and SuperMix Modules in general-purpose software packages SAS procedures VARCOMP, MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NLMIXED R Stata SPSS, commands VARCOMP and MIXED Other multilevel software PinT Optimal Design MLPowSim Mplus Latent Gold REALCOM WinBUGS References Index

4,162 citations

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