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Municipal solid waste

About: Municipal solid waste is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26828 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 418220 citation(s). The topic is also known as: trash & garbage. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1260352
Jenna Jambeck1, Roland Geyer2, Chris Wilcox3, Theodore R. Siegler4  +4 moreInstitutions (7)
13 Feb 2015-Science
Abstract: Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025. more

Topics: Municipal solid waste (59%), Marine debris (58%), Plastic pollution (58%) more

4,410 Citations

Open access
01 Mar 2012-
Abstract: Solid waste management is the one thing just about every city government provides for its residents. While service levels, environmental impacts and costs vary dramatically, solid waste management is arguably the most important municipal service and serves as a prerequisite for other municipal action. As the world hurtles toward its urban future, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW), one of the most important by-products of an urban lifestyle, is growing even faster than the rate of urbanization. Ten years ago there were 2.9 billion urban residents who generated about 0.64 kg of MSW per person per day (0.68 billion tonnes per year). This report estimates that today these amounts have increased to about 3 billion residents generating 1.2 kg per person per day (1.3 billion tonnes per year). By 2025 this will likely increase to 4.3 billion urban residents generating about 1.42 kg/capita/day of municipal solid waste (2.2 billion tonnes per year). more

Topics: Waste disposal (59%), Waste collection (56%), Bulky waste (55%) more

2,036 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Jan 1993-
Abstract: I Perspectives 1 Evolution of Solid Waste Management 2 Legislative Trends and Impacts II Sources, Composition, and Properties of Solid Waste 3 Sources, Types, and Composition of Municipal Solid Waste 4 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Municipal Solid Waste 5 Sources, Types and Properties of Hazardous Wastes Found In Municipal Solid Waste III Engineering Principles 6 Generation of Solid Wastes 7 Waste Handling and Separation, Storage, and Processing at the Source 8 Collection of Solid Wastes 9 Separation and Processing and Transformation of Waste Materials 10 Transfer and Transport 11 Disposal and Solid Wastes and Residual Matter IV Separation, Transformation, and Recycling of Waste Materials 12 Materials Separation and Processing Technologies 13 Thermal Conversion Technologies 14 Biological and Chemical Conversion Technologies 15 Recycling of Materials Found in Municipal Solid Waste V Closure, Restoration, and Rehabilitation of Landfills 16 Remedial Actions for Abandoned Waste Disposal Sites VI Solid Waste Management and Planning Issues 17 Meeting Federal and State Mandated Diversion Goals 18 Implementation of Solid Waste Management Options 19 Planning, Siting, and Permitting of Waste Management Facilities Appendixes more

Topics: Municipal solid waste (72%), Waste collection (72%), Refuse-derived fuel (69%) more

1,770 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0196-8904(00)00137-0
Abstract: Biomass resources include wood and wood wastes, agricultural crops and their waste byproducts, municipal solid waste, animal wastes, waste from food processing and aquatic plants and algae. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The conversion technologies for utilizing biomass can be separated into four basic categories: direct combustion processes, thermochemical processes, biochemical processes and agrochemical processes. Thermochemical conversion processes can be subdivided into gasification, pyrolysis, supercritical fluid extraction and direct liquefaction. Pyrolysis is the thermochemical process that converts biomass into liquid, charcoal and non-condensable gases, acetic acid, acetone and methanol by heating the biomass to about 750 K in the absence of air. If the purpose is to maximize the yield of liquid products resulting from biomass pyrolysis, a low temperature, high heating rate, short gas residence time process would be required. For high char production, a low temperature, low heating rate process would be chosen. If the purpose is to maximize the yield of fuel gas resulting from pyrolysis, a high temperature, low heating rate, long gas residence time process would be preferred. more

Topics: Biomass to liquid (67%), Wood gas (63%), Biomass (63%) more

1,430 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WASMAN.2009.06.004
01 Oct 2009-Waste Management
Abstract: Plastic solid waste (PSW) presents challenges and opportunities to societies regardless of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. In this paper, recent progress in the recycling and recovery of PSW is reviewed. A special emphasis is paid on waste generated from polyolefinic sources, which makes up a great percentage of our daily single-life cycle plastic products. The four routes of PSW treatment are detailed and discussed covering primary (re-extrusion), secondary (mechanical), tertiary (chemical) and quaternary (energy recovery) schemes and technologies. Primary recycling, which involves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material, is commonly applied in the processing line itself but rarely applied among recyclers, as recycling materials rarely possess the required quality. The various waste products, consisting of either end-of-life or production (scrap) waste, are the feedstock of secondary techniques, thereby generally reduced in size to a more desirable shape and form, such as pellets, flakes or powders, depending on the source, shape and usability. Tertiary treatment schemes have contributed greatly to the recycling status of PSW in recent years. Advanced thermo-chemical treatment methods cover a wide range of technologies and produce either fuels or petrochemical feedstock. Nowadays, non-catalytic thermal cracking (thermolysis) is receiving renewed attention, due to the fact of added value on a crude oil barrel and its very valuable yielded products. But a fact remains that advanced thermo-chemical recycling of PSW (namely polyolefins) still lacks the proper design and kinetic background to target certain desired products and/or chemicals. Energy recovery was found to be an attainable solution to PSW in general and municipal solid waste (MSW) in particular. The amount of energy produced in kilns and reactors applied in this route is sufficiently investigated up to the point of operation, but not in terms of integration with either petrochemical or converting plants. Although primary and secondary recycling schemes are well established and widely applied, it is concluded that many of the PSW tertiary and quaternary treatment schemes appear to be robust and worthy of additional investigation. more

Topics: Resource recovery (55%), Scrap (53%), Municipal solid waste (53%) more

1,349 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Morton A. Barlaz

32 papers, 1.5K citations

Timothy G. Townsend

28 papers, 811 citations

Sunil Kumar

25 papers, 416 citations

Thomas Højlund Christensen

23 papers, 1.5K citations

William Hogland

21 papers, 453 citations

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