Murashige and Skoog medium
About: Murashige and Skoog medium is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10125 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 148301 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Frequentencies of friable-callus initiation and somatic-embryoid formation increased linearly with addition to N6 medium, and L-Glutamine was not a satisfactory substitute for L-proline.
Abstract: Friable, embryogenic maize (Zea mays L.), inbred line A188, callus was established and maintained for more than one year without apparent loss of friability or embryogenic potential. Embryoid development was abundant in these cultures and plants were easily regenerated. Frequencies of friable-callus initiation and somatic-embryoid formation increased linearly with addition to N6 medium (C.C. Chu et al. 1975, Sci. Sin. [Peking] 18, 659–668) of up to 25 mM L-proline. Proline additions up to 9 mM to MS medium (inorganic elements of T. Murashige and F. Skoog 1962, Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497, plus 0.5 mg 1-1 thiamine hydrochloride and 150 mg 1-1 L-asparagine monohydrate) did not stimulate embryoid formation. A major part of the difference between MS and N6 media could be attributed to their respective inorganic nitrogen components. L-Glutamine was not a satisfactory substitute for L-proline. Of 111 regenerated plants grown to maturity from three independent friable, embryogenic cell lines ranging in age from three to seven months, only four plants were abnormal based on morphology and pollen sterility. Seed was produced by 77% of the regenerated plants.
TL;DR: Basal leaf segments of 3 to 4 week old maize seedlings plated on SH medium with 30 μM dicamba produced embryogenic callus and/or somatic embryos that germinated and the resulting seedlings could be established in culture tubes.
Abstract: Basal leaf segments of 3 to 4 week old maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings plated on SH medium with 30 μM dicamba produced embryogenic callus and/or somatic embryos. Histological evidence showed that some of the embryos arose directly from the explant. When leaf segments with embryos were transferred to MS medium with 1.0 μM NAA, 1.0 μM IAA, 2.0 μM 2iP, and 60 g/l sucrose, the embryos germinated and the resulting seedlings could be established in culture tubes. These responses were obtained from three inbred lines, CHI31, S615, and S7.
TL;DR: Using callus derived from immature embryos, regeneration of viable plants was obtained in soybean cultures and confirmed the organogenic and embryogenic nature of the cultures, by demonstrating the formation of shoot buds and somatic embryos, respectively.
Abstract: Using callus derived from immature embryos, regeneration of viable plants was obtained in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Depending on the composition of the medium, regeneration occurred via embryogenesis or via organogenesis. Embryogenesis resulted when embryos were plated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 43 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid. In work with the cultivar Williams 82, the addition of 5.0 μM thiamine HCl increased embryogenesis from 33% to 58% of the embryos plated. Addition of 30 μM nicotinic acid to the MS medium enhanced embryogenesis further to 76%. Organogenesis was obtained when medium containing 13.3 μM 6-benzylaminopurine, 0.2 μM and α-naphthaleneacetic acid and four times the normal concentration of MS minor salts was used. Histological studies of these cultures confirmed the organogenic and embryogenic nature of the cultures, by demonstrating the formation of shoot buds and somatic embryos, respectively. Similar responses were obtained in all 54 genotypes tested in this manner. The cultures retained the ability to regenerate complete plants for at least 12 months and 12–15 subcultures. Seeds have been obtained from several regenerated plants and when grown in the field these produced normal-appearing fertile plants.
TL;DR: The nature of the explant, seedling age, medium type, plant growth regulators, complex extracts and antioxidants markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Gymnema sylvestre and the plantlets were hardened and successfully established in natural soil.
Abstract: The nature of the explant, seedling age, medium type, plant growth regulators, complex extracts (casein hydrolysate, coconut milk, malt extract and yeast extract) and antioxidants (activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, citric acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone) markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Gymnema sylvestre. A maximum number of shoots (57.2) were induced from 30 day old seedling axillary node explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 6-benzyladenine (1 mg l−1), kinetin (0.5 mg l−1), 1-napthalene acetic acid (0.1 mg l−1), malt extract (100 mg l−1) and citric acid (100 mg l−1). High frequency of rooting was obtained in axillary node explant derived shoots (50%) on half strength MS medium supplemented with IBA (3 mg l−1). The plantlets, thus developed, were hardened and successfully established in natural soil.
TL;DR: A new medium was formulated by comparing data from analysis of the main mineral elements found in the apical shoots and in mature embryos in olive and almond, characterized by a high content of Ca, Mg, S, Cu and Zn compared to almond, which is easy to propagate on MS medium.
Abstract: Short- and long-term objectives for research on tissue culture of the olive are described. Sterile shoots were obtained from single-node woody explants or buds of 3 olive cultivars (‘Frantoio’, ‘Dolce Agogia’ and ‘Moraiolo’) with different root-ability, collected from shoots having different degrees of juvenility (suckers, vigorous nonfruit-bearing and fruit-bearing shoots, which are easy, medium and difficult to root, respectively). Because many of the media tested did not give a satisfactory growth rate and good quality shoots, a new medium was formulated by comparing data from analysis of the main mineral elements found in the apical shoots (4–5 mm long) and in mature embryos in olive and almond. Olive tissues were characterized by a high content of Ca, Mg, S, Cu and Zn compared to almond, which is easy to propagate on MS medium. In this newly derived medium, characterized by a high content of these elements, multiplication rate (number of nodes formed per explant) was about 9× in 40 days. The shoots grew more rapidly and were more tender than when grown in other media. Washing of the explants in water or GSH (reduced glutathione) solution, before sub-culturing, improved quality and growth rate of the shoots. Explants, with 2 or 3 nodes, rooted easily in half-strength MS, in Bourgin and Nitsch, or in half Knop macro and Heller microelements, agar media, with 1 mg 1 −1 NAA and 2% sucrose. Rooting was not affected by the different degrees of juvenility of the original explants used. Hardening-off was achieved by growing plants in a 1:1 mixture of perlite and peat-moss in a transparent plastic chamber with saturated circulating air for 1 month. GA 3 sprayed on the leaves was found to be beneficial in stimulating growth resumption of plantlets.