About: Mutation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 45257 publications have been published within this topic receiving 2695031 citations. The topic is also known as: genetic mutation.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The high efficiency, approximately equal to 10-fold greater than that observed using current methods without enrichment procedures, is obtained by using a DNA template containing several uracil residues in place of thymine, which is applied to mutations introduced via both oligonucleotides and error-prone polymerization.
Abstract: Several single-base substitution mutations have been introduced into the lacZ alpha gene in cloning vector M13mp2, at 40-60% efficiency, in a rapid procedure requiring only transfection of the unfractionated products of standard in vitro mutagenesis reactions. Two simple additional treatments of the DNA, before transfection, produce a site-specific mutation frequency approaching 100%. The approach is applicable to phenotypically silent mutations in addition to those that can be selected. The high efficiency, approximately equal to 10-fold greater than that observed using current methods without enrichment procedures, is obtained by using a DNA template containing several uracil residues in place of thymine. This template has normal coding potential for the in vitro reactions typical of site-directed mutagenesis protocols but is not biologically active upon transfection into a wild-type (i.e., ung+) Escherichia coli host cell. Expression of the desired change, present in the newly synthesized non-uracil-containing covalently closed circular complementary strand, is thus strongly favored. The procedure has been applied to mutations introduced via both oligonucleotides and error-prone polymerization. In addition to its utility in changing DNA sequences, this approach can potentially be used to examine the biological consequences of specific lesions placed at defined positions within a gene.
TL;DR: The p53 mutational spectrum differs among cancers of the colon, lung, esophagus, breast, liver, brain, reticuloendothelial tissues, and hemopoietic tissues as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Mutations in the evolutionarily conserved codons of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are common in diverse types of human cancer. The p53 mutational spectrum differs among cancers of the colon, lung, esophagus, breast, liver, brain, reticuloendothelial tissues, and hemopoietic tissues. Analysis of these mutations can provide clues to the etiology of these diverse tumors and to the function of specific regions of p53. Transitions predominate in colon, brain, and lymphoid malignancies, whereas G:C to T:A transversions are the most frequent substitutions observed in cancers of the lung and liver. Mutations at A:T base pairs are seen more frequently in esophageal carcinomas than in other solid tumors. Most transitions in colorectal carcinomas, brain tumors, leukemias, and lymphomas are at CpG dinucleotide mutational hot spots. G to T transversions in lung, breast, and esophageal carcinomas are dispersed among numerous codons. In liver tumors in persons from geographic areas in which both aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus are cancer risk factors, most mutations are at one nucleotide pair of codon 249. These differences may reflect the etiological contributions of both exogenous and endogenous factors to human carcinogenesis.
TL;DR: This work has revealed the genomic landscapes of common forms of human cancer, which consists of a small number of “mountains” (genes altered in a high percentage of tumors) and a much larger number of "hills" (Genes altered infrequently).
Abstract: Over the past decade, comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed the genomic landscapes of common forms of human cancer. For most cancer types, this landscape consists of a small number of “mountains” (genes altered in a high percentage of tumors) and a much larger number of “hills” (genes altered infrequently). To date, these studies have revealed ~140 genes that, when altered by intragenic mutations, can promote or “drive” tumorigenesis. A typical tumor contains two to eight of these “driver gene” mutations; the remaining mutations are passengers that confer no selective growth advantage. Driver genes can be classified into 12 signaling pathways that regulate three core cellular processes: cell fate, cell survival, and genome maintenance. A better understanding of these pathways is one of the most pressing needs in basic cancer research. Even now, however, our knowledge of cancer genomes is sufficient to guide the development of more effective approaches for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality.
TL;DR: Treatment efficacy was associated with a higher number of mutations in the tumors, and a tumor-specific T cell response paralleled tumor regression in one patient, suggesting that the genomic landscape of lung cancers shapes response to anti–PD-1 therapy.
Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which unleash a patient’s own T cells to kill tumors, are revolutionizing cancer treatment. To unravel the genomic determinants of response to this therapy, we used whole-exome sequencing of non–small cell lung cancers treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). In two independent cohorts, higher nonsynonymous mutation burden in tumors was associated with improved objective response, durable clinical benefit, and progression-free survival. Efficacy also correlated with the molecular smoking signature, higher neoantigen burden, and DNA repair pathway mutations; each factor was also associated with mutation burden. In one responder, neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses paralleled tumor regression, suggesting that anti–PD-1 therapy enhances neoantigen-specific T cell reactivity. Our results suggest that the genomic landscape of lung cancers shapes response to anti–PD-1 therapy.
TL;DR: It appeared that ras gene mutations can be found in a variety of tumor types, although the incidence varies greatly and some evidence that environmental agents may be involved in the induction of the mutations.
Abstract: Mutations in codon 12, 13, or 61 of one of the three ras genes, H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras, convert these genes into active oncogenes. Rapid assays for the detection of these point mutations have been developed recently and used to investigate the role mutated ras genes play in the pathogenesis of human tumors. It appeared that ras gene mutations can be found in a variety of tumor types, although the incidence varies greatly. The highest incidences are found in adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (90%), the colon (50%), and the lung (30%); in thyroid tumors (50%); and in myeloid leukemia (30%). For some tumor types a relationship may exist between the presence of a ras mutation and clinical or histopathological features of the tumor. There is some evidence that environmental agents may be involved in the induction of the mutations.
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