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N-Methylmorpholine N-oxide

About: N-Methylmorpholine N-oxide is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 187 publications have been published within this topic receiving 5251 citations. The topic is also known as: N-Methylmorpholine oxide & N-Methylmorpholine 4-oxide.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the state-of-the-art knowledge on structure formation of fibers and films via the NMMO-route comprising the cellulose-NMMO-water phase system, the state of solution, the dry jet-wet shaping, the precipitation, and the drying stages.

861 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the side reactions of NMMO in the Lyocell process have been divided into homolytic (radical) and heterolytic processes in a systematic investigation.

456 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, four cellulose dissolution agents, NaOH/Urea solution, N-methylmorpholine-Noxide (NMMO), ionic liquid (1-butyl-3methylimidazolium chloride; [BMIM]Cl) and 85% phosphoric acid were employed to dissolve cotton cellulose.

269 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new oxa-chromanol derivative, PBD (14), was designed as stabilizer for Lyocell solutions, which acts as a scavenger of all three dangerous species, namely HCHO,5 and radicals.
Abstract: Efficient stabilization of cellulose solutions in NMMO(1) against side reactions and their harmful effects meansprevention of both homolytic and heterolytic side reactions, which is mainlyaccomplished by trapping radicals, formaldehyde, andN-(methylene)iminium ions (5). Whileradical trapping is commonly reflected by the antioxidativeefficiency, the effectivity against heterolyticdegradationin the Lyocell dope can be expressed by the newly introduced term‘formaldehyde trapping capacity’ (FTC). Propyl gallate (PG,4), the most widely applied Lyocell stabilizer nowadays, actsas a phenolic antioxidant, and is finally oxidized to a deeply colored, highlyconjugated chromophore (11) via ellagicacid (10). It was demonstrated that 4 is alsoa quencher of formaldehyde and N-(methylene)iminium ions,both in organic solutions of NMMO and in Lyocell dope. The processes of radicaltrapping and scavenging of HCHO/5 are competitive in the caseof propyl gallate. A novel oxa-chromanol derivative, PBD (14),was designed as stabilizer for Lyocell solutions. In analogy to propyl gallate,PBD acts as a scavenger of all three dangerous species, namely HCHO,5 and radicals. Upon oxidation by radical species, PBDreleasesacetaldehyde which acts as a very efficient HCHO trap. Thus, in contrast topropyl gallate, radical trapping and HCHO trapping are not competitive. Boththeantioxidative efficiency and the capacity to trap HCHO and 5are higher for PBD as compared to propyl gallate. In preliminary stabilizertesting, mixtures of PBD and PG proved to be especially effective.

168 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The cellulose dissolution solvent used in Lyocell process for cellulose fiber preparation, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) monohydrate, was demonstrated to be an effective agent for sugarcane bagasse pretreatment and exhibited a significant enhancement on enzymatic hydrolysis kinetic.

164 citations

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