About: (+)-Naloxone is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11409 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 380909 citation(s).
09 Mar 1973-Science
Abstract: Tritiated naloxone, a powerful opiate antagonist, specifically binds to an opiate receptor of mammalian brain and guinea pig intestine. Competition for the opiate receptor by various opiates and their antagonists closely parallels their pharmacological potency. The opiate receptor is confined to nervous tissue.
17 Oct 1980-European Journal of Pharmacology
Abstract: A simple, rapid technique for intrathecal injections by lumbar puncture in unanesthetized mice is described. Intrathecal [3H]morphine base was not found in significant quantitities in either the midbrain or forebrain. Submicrogram quantities of morphine sulfate induced Straub tail response and tail-flick analgesia. These effects were dose related and antagonized by subcutaneous naloxone.
22 Jan 1982-Science
Abstract: In the guinea pig ileum myenteric plexus--longitudinal muscle preparation, dynorphin-(1--13) and the prototypical kappa agonist ethylketocyclazocine had equally poor sensitivity to naloxone antagonism and showed selective cross protection in receptor inactivation experiments with the alkylating antagonist beta-chlornaltrexamine. In binding assays with membranes from guinea pig brain, ethylketocyclazocine and dynorphin-(1--13) amide were more potent in displacing tritium-labeled ethylketocyclazocine than in displacing typical mu and delta opioid receptor ligands. In the two preparations studied, the dynorphin receptor appears to be the same as the kappa opioid receptor.
Abstract: Tramadol hydrochloride produced dose-related antinociception in mouse abdominal constriction [ED50 = 1.9 (1.2-2.6) mg/kg i.p.], hot-plate [48 degrees C, ED50 = 21.4 (18.4-25.3) mg/kg s.c.; 55 degrees C, ED50 = 33.1 (28.2-39.1) mg/kg s.c.] and tail-flick [ED50 = 22.8 (19.2-30.1) mg/kg s.c.] tests. Tramadol also displayed antinociceptive activity in the rat air-induced abdominal constriction [ED50 = 1.7 (0.7-3.2) mg/kg p.o.] and hot-plate [51 degrees C, ED50 = 19.5 (10.3-27.5) mg/kg i.p.] tests. The antinociceptive activity of tramadol in the mouse tail-flick test was completely antagonized by naloxone, suggesting an opioid mechanism of action. Consistent with this, tramadol bound with modest affinity to opioid mu receptors and with weak affinity to delta and kappa receptors, with Ki values of 2.1, 57.6 and 42.7 microM, respectively. The pA2 value for naloxone obtained with tramadol in the mouse tail-flick test was 7.76 and was not statistically different from that obtained with morphine (7.94). In CXBK mice, tramadol, like morphine, was devoid of antinociceptive activity after intracerebroventricular administration, suggesting that the opioid component of tramadol-induced antinociception is mediated by the mu-opioid receptor. In contrast to the mouse tail-flick test and unlike morphine or codeine, tramadol-induced antinociception in the mouse abdominal constriction, mouse hot-plate (48 degrees or 55 degrees C) or rat hot-plate tests was only partially antagonized by naloxone, implicating a nonopioid component. Further examination of the neurochemical profile of tramadol revealed that, unlike morphine, it also inhibited the uptake of norepinephrine (Ki = 0.79 microM) and serotonin (0.99 microM). The possibility that this additional activity contributes to the antinociceptive activity of tramadol was supported by the finding that systemically administered yohimbine or ritanserin blocked the antinociception produced by intrathecal administration of tramadol, but not morphine, in the rat tail-flick test. These results suggest that tramadol-induced antinociception is mediated by opioid (mu) and nonopioid (inhibition of monoamine uptake) mechanisms. This hypothesis is consistent with the clinical experience of a wide separation between analgesia and typical opioid side effects.
27 Jun 1997-Science
Abstract: The effects of the active ingredient of Cannabis, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), and of the highly addictive drug heroin on in vivo dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens were compared in Sprague-Dawley rats by brain microdialysis Delta9-THC and heroin increased extracellular dopamine concentrations selectively in the shell of the nucleus accumbens; these effects were mimicked by the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN55212-2 SR141716A, an antagonist of central cannabinoid receptors, prevented the effects of Delta9-THC but not those of heroin Naloxone, a generic opioid antagonist, administered systemically, or naloxonazine, an antagonist of micro1 opioid receptors, infused into the ventral tegmentum, prevented the action of cannabinoids and heroin on dopamine transmission Thus, Delta9-THC and heroin exert similar effects on mesolimbic dopamine transmission through a common mu1 opioid receptor mechanism located in the ventral mesencephalic tegmentum