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About: Nanocomposite is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 71321 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1911332 citation(s). The topic is also known as: nanocomposites.

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Abstract: A review is given of the academic and industrial aspects of the preparation, characterization, materials properties, crystallization behavior, melt rheology, and processing of polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. These materials are attracting considerable interest in polymer science research. Hectorite and montmorillonite are among the most commonly used smectite-type layered silicates for the preparation of nanocomposites. Smectites are a valuable mineral class for industrial applications because of their high cation exchange capacities, surface area, surface reactivity, adsorptive properties, and, in the case of hectorite, high viscosity and transparency in solution. In their pristine form they are hydrophilic in nature, and this property makes them very difficult to disperse into a polymer matrix. The most common way to remove this difficulty is to replace interlayer cations with quarternized ammonium or phosphonium cations, preferably with long alkyl chains. A wide range of polymer matrices is covered in this review, with special emphasis on biodegradable polymers. In general, polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites are of three different types, namely (1) intercalated nanocomposites , for which insertion of polymer chains into a layered silicate structure occurs in a crystallographically regular fashion, with a repeat distance of few nanometers, regardless of polymer to clay ratio, (2) flocculated nanocomposites , for which intercalated and stacked silicate layers flocculated to some extent due to the hydroxylated edge–edge interactions of the silicate layers, and (3) exfoliated nanocomposites , for which the individual silicate layers are separated in the polymer matrix by average distances that depend only on the clay loading. This new family of composite materials frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of material properties when compared with the matrix polymers alone or conventional micro- and macro-composite materials. Improvements can include a high storage modulus, both in solid and melt states, increased tensile and flexural properties, a decrease in gas permeability and flammability, increased heat distortion temperature, an increase in the biodegradability rate of biodegradable polymers, and so forth.

6,073 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This review aims at reporting on very recent developments in syntheses, properties and (future) applications of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This new type of materials, based on smectite clays usually rendered hydrophobic through ionic exchange of the sodium interlayer cation with an onium cation, may be prepared via various synthetic routes comprising exfoliation adsorption, in situ intercalative polymerization and melt intercalation. The whole range of polymer matrices is covered, i.e. thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers. Two types of structure may be obtained, namely intercalated nanocomposites where the polymer chains are sandwiched in between silicate layers and exfoliated nanocomposites where the separated, individual silicate layers are more or less uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix. This new family of materials exhibits enhanced properties at very low filler level, usually inferior to 5 wt.%, such as increased Young’s modulus and storage modulus, increase in thermal stability and gas barrier properties and good flame retardancy.

5,682 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Since their first observation nearly a decade ago by Iijima (Iijima S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon Nature. 1991; 354:56–8), carbon nanotubes have been the focus of considerable research. Numerous investigators have since reported remarkable physical and mechanical properties for this new form of carbon. From unique electronic properties and a thermal conductivity higher than diamond to mechanical properties where the stiffness, strength and resilience exceeds any current material, carbon nanotubes offer tremendous opportunities for the development of fundamentally new material systems. In particular, the exceptional mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, combined with their low density, offer scope for the development of nanotube-reinforced composite materials. The potential for nanocomposites reinforced with carbon tubes having extraordinary specific stiffness and strength represent tremendous opportunity for application in the 21st century. This paper provides a concise review of recent advances in carbon nanotubes and their composites. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the structure and processing of carbon nanotubes, as well as characterization and property modeling of carbon nanotubes and their composites.

4,436 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites with layered silicates as the inorganic phase (reinforcement) are discussed. The materials design and synthesis rely on the ability of layered silicates to intercalate in the galleries between their layers a wide range of monomers and polymers. Special emphasis is placed on a new, versatile and environmentally benign synthesis approach by polymer melt intercalation. In contrast to in-situ polymerization and solution intercalation, melt intercalation involves mixing the layered silicate with the polymer and heating the mixture above the softening point of the polymer. Compatibility with various polymers is accomplished by derivatizing the silicates with alkyl ammonium cations via an ion exchange reaction. By fine-tuning the surface characteristics nanodispersion (i. e. intercalation or delamination) can be accomplished. The resulting polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites exhibit properties dramatically different from their more conventional counterparts. For example, PLS nanocomposites can attain a particular degree of stiffness, strength and barrier properties with far less inorganic content than comparable glass- or mineral reinforced polymers and, therefore, they are far lighter in weight. In addition, PLS nanocomposites exhibit significant increase in thermal stability as well as self-extinguishing characteristics. The combination of improved properties, convenient processing and low cost has already led to a few commercial applications with more currently under development.

3,390 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Many of the recent advances in enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit are linked to nanoscale phenomena found both in bulk samples containing nanoscale constituents and in nanoscale samples themselves. Prior theoretical and experimental proof-of-principle studies on quantum-well superlattice and quantum-wire samples have now evolved into studies on bulk samples containing nanostructured constituents prepared by chemical or physical approaches. In this Review, nanostructural composites are shown to exhibit nanostructures and properties that show promise for thermoelectric applications, thus bringing together low-dimensional and bulk materials for thermoelectric applications. Particular emphasis is given in this Review to the ability to achieve 1) a simultaneous increase in the power factor and a decrease in the thermal conductivity in the same nanocomposite sample and for transport in the same direction and 2) lower values of the thermal conductivity in these nanocomposites as compared to alloy samples of the same chemical composition. The outlook for future research directions for nanocomposite thermoelectric materials is also discussed.

3,198 citations

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