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Nanocrystalline material

About: Nanocrystalline material is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 36680 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 841161 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
02 May 2008-Science
TL;DR: Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation.
Abstract: The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in bismuth antimony telluride (BiSbTe) bulk alloys has remained around 1 for more than 50 years. We show that a peak ZT of 1.4 at 100°C can be achieved in a p-type nanocrystalline BiSbTe bulk alloy. These nanocrystalline bulk materials were made by hot pressing nanopowders that were ball-milled from crystalline ingots under inert conditions. Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects. More importantly, ZT is about 1.2 at room temperature and 0.8 at 250°C, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation. Cooling devices that use these materials have produced high-temperature differences of 86°, 106°, and 119°C with hot-side temperatures set at 50°, 100°, and 150°C, respectively. This discovery sets the stage for use of a new nanocomposite approach in developing high-performance low-cost bulk thermoelectric materials.

4,218 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials are reviewed, with emphasis on their constitutive response and on the fundamental physical mechanisms. In a brief introduction, the most important synthesis methods are presented. A number of aspects of mechanical behavior are discussed, including the deviation from the Hall–Petch slope and possible negative slope, the effect of porosity, the difference between tensile and compressive strength, the limited ductility, the tendency for shear localization, the fatigue and creep responses. The strain-rate sensitivity of FCC metals is increased due to the decrease in activation volume in the nanocrystalline regime; for BCC metals this trend is not observed, since the activation volume is already low in the conventional polycrystalline regime. In fatigue, it seems that the S–N curves show improvement due to the increase in strength, whereas the da/dN curve shows increased growth velocity (possibly due to the smoother fracture requiring less energy to propagate). The creep results are conflicting: while some results indicate a decreased creep resistance consistent with the small grain size, other experimental results show that the creep resistance is not negatively affected. Several mechanisms that quantitatively predict the strength of nanocrystalline metals in terms of basic defects (dislocations, stacking faults, etc.) are discussed: break-up of dislocation pile-ups, core-and-mantle, grain-boundary sliding, grain-boundary dislocation emission and annihilation, grain coalescence, and gradient approach. Although this classification is broad, it incorporates the major mechanisms proposed to this date. The increased tendency for twinning, a direct consequence of the increased separation between partial dislocations, is discussed. The fracture of nanocrystalline metals consists of a mixture of ductile dimples and shear regions; the dimple size, while much smaller than that of conventional polycrystalline metals, is several times larger than the grain size. The shear regions are a direct consequence of the increased tendency of the nanocrystalline metals to undergo shear localization. The major computational approaches to the modeling of the mechanical processes in nanocrystalline metals are reviewed with emphasis on molecular dynamics simulations, which are revealing the emission of partial dislocations at grain boundaries and their annihilation after crossing them.

3,425 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Feb 2010-Nature
TL;DR: The results suggest that the doping-induced structural and size transition, demonstrated here in NaYF4 upconversion nanocrystals, could be extended to other lanthanide-doped nanocrystal systems for applications ranging from luminescent biological labels to volumetric three-dimensional displays.
Abstract: Doping is a widely applied technological process in materials science that involves incorporating atoms or ions of appropriate elements into host lattices to yield hybrid materials with desirable properties and functions. For nanocrystalline materials, doping is of fundamental importance in stabilizing a specific crystallographic phase, modifying electronic properties, modulating magnetism as well as tuning emission properties. Here we describe a material system in which doping influences the growth process to give simultaneous control over the crystallographic phase, size and optical emission properties of the resulting nanocrystals. We show that NaYF(4) nanocrystals can be rationally tuned in size (down to ten nanometres), phase (cubic or hexagonal) and upconversion emission colour (green to blue) through use of trivalent lanthanide dopant ions introduced at precisely defined concentrations. We use first-principles calculations to confirm that the influence of lanthanide doping on crystal phase and size arises from a strong dependence on the size and dipole polarizability of the substitutional dopant ion. Our results suggest that the doping-induced structural and size transition, demonstrated here in NaYF(4) upconversion nanocrystals, could be extended to other lanthanide-doped nanocrystal systems for applications ranging from luminescent biological labels to volumetric three-dimensional displays.

2,584 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Oct 2002-Nature
TL;DR: A thermomechanical treatment of Cu is described that results in a bimodal grain size distribution, with micrometre-sized grains embedded inside a matrix of nanocrystalline and ultrafine (<300 nm) grains, which impart high strength, as expected from an extrapolation of the Hall–Petch relationship.
Abstract: Nanocrystalline metals--with grain sizes of less than 100 nm--have strengths exceeding those of coarse-grained and even alloyed metals, and are thus expected to have many applications. For example, pure nanocrystalline Cu (refs 1-7) has a yield strength in excess of 400 MPa, which is six times higher than that of coarse-grained Cu. But nanocrystalline materials often exhibit low tensile ductility at room temperature, which limits their practical utility. The elongation to failure is typically less than a few per cent; the regime of uniform deformation is even smaller. Here we describe a thermomechanical treatment of Cu that results in a bimodal grain size distribution, with micrometre-sized grains embedded inside a matrix of nanocrystalline and ultrafine (<300 nm) grains. The matrix grains impart high strength, as expected from an extrapolation of the Hall-Petch relationship. Meanwhile, the inhomogeneous microstructure induces strain hardening mechanisms that stabilize the tensile deformation, leading to a high tensile ductility--65% elongation to failure, and 30% uniform elongation. We expect that these results will have implications in the development of tough nanostructured metals for forming operations and high-performance structural applications including microelectromechanical and biomedical systems.

2,216 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A novel and simple method for preparing highly photoactive nanocrystalline F--doped TiO2 photocatalyst with anatase and brookite phase was developed by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide in a mixed NH4F−H2O solution. The prepared F--doped TiO2 powders were characterized by differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV−vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BET surface areas. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone in air. The results showed that the crystallinity of anatase was improved upon F- doping. Moreover, fluoride ions not only suppressed the formation of brookite phase but also prevented phase transition of anatase to rutile. The F--doped TiO2 samples exhibited stronger absorption in the UV−visible range with a red shift in the band gap transition. The photocatalytic activity of F--doped TiO2 powders prep...

1,962 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202256
2021985
20201,265
20191,336
20181,426
20171,516