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Nanocrystalline silicon

About: Nanocrystalline silicon is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 14554 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 265137 citation(s).
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R. A. Street1
30 Aug 1991-
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Growth and structure of amorphous silicon 3. The electronic density of states 4. Defects and their electronic states 5. Substitutional doping 6. Defect reactions, thermal equilibrium and metastability 7. Electronic transport 8. Recombination of excess carriers 9. Contacts, interfaces and multilayers 10. Amorphous silicon device technology.

1,974 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Porous silicon layers grown on nondegenerated p‐type silicon electrodes in hydrofluoric acid electrolytes are translucent for visible light, which is equivalent to an increased band gap compared to bulk silicon. It will be shown that a two‐dimensional quantum confinement (quantum wire) in the very narrow walls between the pores not only explains the change in band‐gap energy but may also be the key to better understanding the dissolution mechanism that leads to porous silicon formation.

1,678 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The structural changes in silicon electrochemically lithiated and delithiated at room temperature were studied by X-ray powder diffraction. Crystalline silicon becomes amorphous during lithium insertion, confirming previous studies. Highly lithiated amorphous silicon suddenly crystallizes at 50 mV to form a new lithium-silicon phase, identified as This phase is the fully lithiated phase for silicon at room temperature, not as is widely believed. Delithiation of the phase results in the formation of amorphous silicon. Cycling silicon anodes above 50 mV avoids the formation of crystallized phases completely and results in better cycling performance. © 2004 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

1,521 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1991-Nature
Abstract: LIGHT-emitting devices based on silicon would find many applications in both VLSI and display technologies, but silicon normally emits only extremely weak infrared photoluminescence because of its relatively small and indirect band gap1. The recent demonstration of very efficient and multicolour (red, orange, yellow and green) visible light emission from highly porous, electrochemically etched silicon2,3 has therefore generated much interest. On the basis of strong but indirect evidence, this phenomenon was initially attributed to quantum size effects within crystalline material2, but this interpretation has subsequently been extensively debated. Here we report results from a transmission electron microscopy study which reveals the structure of the porous layers that emit red light under photoexcitation. Our results constitute direct evidence that highly porous silicon contains quantum-size crystalline structures responsible for the visible emission. We show that arrays of linear quantum wires are present and obtain images of individual quantum wires of width <3 nm.

1,247 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The striking photoluminescence properties of porous silicon have attracted considerable research interest since their discovery in 1990. Luminescence is due to excitonic recombination quantum confined in Si nanocrystals which remain after the partial electrochemical dissolution of silicon. Porous silicon is constituted by a nanocrystalline skeleton (quantum sponge) immersed in a network of pores. As a result, porous silicon is characterized by a very large internal surface area (of the order of 500 m 2 / cm 3 ). This internal surface is passivated but remains highly chemically reactive which is one of the essential features of this new and complex material. We present an overview of the experimental characterization and theoretical modeling of porous silicon, from the preparation up to various applications. Emphasis is devoted to the optical properties of porous silicon which are closely related to the quantum nature of the Si nanostructures. The characteristics of the various luminescence bands are analyzed and the underlying basic mechanisms are presented. In the quest of an efficient electroluminescent device, we survey the results for several porous silicon contacts, with particular attention to the interface properties, to the stability requirement and to the carrier injection mechanisms. Other device applications are discussed as well.

1,218 citations

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