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Nanoelectronics

About: Nanoelectronics is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3684 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 156829 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
Xiangfeng Duan1, Yu Huang1, Yi Cui1, Jianfang Wang1, Charles M. Lieber1 
04 Jan 2001-Nature
TL;DR: The assembly of functional nanoscale devices from indium phosphide nanowires, the electrical properties of which are controlled by selective doping are reported, and electric-field-directed assembly can be used to create highly integrated device arrays from nanowire building blocks.
Abstract: Nanowires and nanotubes carry charge and excitons efficiently, and are therefore potentially ideal building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics. Carbon nanotubes have already been exploited in devices such as field-effect and single-electron transistors, but the practical utility of nanotube components for building electronic circuits is limited, as it is not yet possible to selectively grow semiconducting or metallic nanotubes. Here we report the assembly of functional nanoscale devices from indium phosphide nanowires, the electrical properties of which are controlled by selective doping. Gate-voltage-dependent transport measurements demonstrate that the nanowires can be predictably synthesized as either n- or p-type. These doped nanowires function as nanoscale field-effect transistors, and can be assembled into crossed-wire p-n junctions that exhibit rectifying behaviour. Significantly, the p-n junctions emit light strongly and are perhaps the smallest light-emitting diodes that have yet been made. Finally, we show that electric-field-directed assembly can be used to create highly integrated device arrays from nanowire building blocks.

3,205 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Dimensionality plays a critical role in determining the properties of materials due to, for example, the different ways that electrons interact in three-dimensional, twodimensional (2D), and one-dimensional (1D) structures.1-5 The study of dimensionality has a long history in chemistry and physics, although this has been primarily with the prefix “quasi” added to the description of materials; that is, quasi-1D solids, including square-planar platinum chain and metal trichalcogenide compounds,2,6 and quasi2D layered solids, such as metal dichalcogenides and copper oxide superconductors.3-5,7,8 The anisotropy inherent in quasi-1D and -2D systems is central to the unique properties and phases that these materials exhibit, although the small but finite interactions between 1D chains or 2D layers in bulk materials have made it difficult to address the interesting properties expected for the pure low-dimensional systems. Are pure low-dimensional systems interesting and worth pursuing? We believe that the answer to this question is an unqualified yes from the standpoints of both fundamental science and technology. One needs to look no further than past studies of the 2D electron gas in semiconductor heterostructures, which have produced remarkably rich and often unexpected results,9,10 and electron tunneling through 0D quantum dots, which have led to the concepts of the artificial atom and the creation of single electron transistors.11-15 In these cases, lowdimensional systems were realized by creating discrete 2D and 0D nanostructures. 1D nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanotubes, are expected to be at least as interesting and important as 2D and 0D systems.16,17 1D systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and optical excitations, and are thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. However, little is known about the nature of, for example, localization that could preclude transport through 1D systems. In addition, 1D systems should exhibit density of states singularities, can have energetically discrete molecularlike states extending over large linear distances, and may show more exotic phenomena, such as the spin-charge separation predicted for a Luttinger liquid.1,2 There are also many applications where 1D nanostructures could be exploited, including nanoelectronics, superstrong and tough composites, functional nanostructured materials, and novel probe microscopy tips.16-29 To address these fascinating fundamental scientific issues and potential applications requires answers to two questions at the heart of condensed matter chemistry and physics research: (1) How can atoms or other building blocks be rationally assembled into structures with nanometer-sized diameters but much longer lengths? (2) What are the intrinsic properties of these quantum wires and how do these properties depend, for example, on diameter and structure? Below we describe investigations from our laboratory directed toward these two general questions. The organization of this Account is as follows. In section II, we discuss the development of a general approach to the rational synthesis of crystalline nanowires of arbitrary composition. In section III, we outline key challenges to probing the intrinsic properties of 1D systems and illustrate solutions to these challenges with measurements of the atomic structure and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes. Last, we discuss future directions and challenges in section IV.

3,160 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ali Javey1, Jing Guo2, Qian Wang1, Mark Lundstrom2, Hongjie Dai1 
07 Aug 2003-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that contacting semiconducting single-walled nanotubes by palladium, a noble metal with high work function and good wetting interactions with nanotube, greatly reduces or eliminates the barriers for transport through the valence band of nanot tubes.
Abstract: A common feature of the single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors fabricated to date has been the presence of a Schottky barrier at the nanotube–metal junctions1,2,3. These energy barriers severely limit transistor conductance in the ‘ON’ state, and reduce the current delivery capability—a key determinant of device performance. Here we show that contacting semiconducting single-walled nanotubes by palladium, a noble metal with high work function and good wetting interactions with nanotubes, greatly reduces or eliminates the barriers for transport through the valence band of nanotubes. In situ modification of the electrode work function by hydrogen is carried out to shed light on the nature of the contacts. With Pd contacts, the ‘ON’ states of semiconducting nanotubes can behave like ohmically contacted ballistic metallic tubes, exhibiting room-temperature conductance near the ballistic transport limit of 4e2/h (refs 4–6), high current-carrying capability (∼25 µA per tube), and Fabry–Perot interferences5 at low temperatures. Under high voltage operation, the current saturation appears to be set by backscattering of the charge carriers by optical phonons. High-performance ballistic nanotube field-effect transistors with zero or slightly negative Schottky barriers are thus realized.

3,008 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Oct 2007-Nature
TL;DR: These coaxial silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements provide a new nanoscale test bed for studies of photoinduced energy/charge transport and artificial photosynthesis, and might find general usage as elements for powering ultralow-power electronics and diverse nanosystems.
Abstract: Solar cells are attractive candidates for clean and renewable power; with miniaturization, they might also serve as integrated power sources for nanoelectronic systems. The use of nanostructures or nanostructured materials represents a general approach to reduce both cost and size and to improve efficiency in photovoltaics. Nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires have been used to improve charge collection efficiency in polymer-blend and dye-sensitized solar cells, to demonstrate carrier multiplication, and to enable low-temperature processing of photovoltaic devices. Moreover, recent theoretical studies have indicated that coaxial nanowire structures could improve carrier collection and overall efficiency with respect to single-crystal bulk semiconductors of the same materials. However, solar cells based on hybrid nanoarchitectures suffer from relatively low efficiencies and poor stabilities. In addition, previous studies have not yet addressed their use as photovoltaic power elements in nanoelectronics. Here we report the realization of p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) coaxial silicon nanowire solar cells. Under one solar equivalent (1-sun) illumination, the p-i-n silicon nanowire elements yield a maximum power output of up to 200 pW per nanowire device and an apparent energy conversion efficiency of up to 3.4 per cent, with stable and improved efficiencies achievable at high-flux illuminations. Furthermore, we show that individual and interconnected silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements can serve as robust power sources to drive functional nanoelectronic sensors and logic gates. These coaxial silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements provide a new nanoscale test bed for studies of photoinduced energy/charge transport and artificial photosynthesis, and might find general usage as elements for powering ultralow-power electronics and diverse nanosystems.

2,797 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Feb 2002-Nature
TL;DR: Single-nanowire photoluminescent, electrical transport and electroluminescence measurements show the unique photonic and electronic properties of these nanowire superlattices, and suggest potential applications ranging from nano-barcodes to polarized nanoscale LEDs.
Abstract: The assembly of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes into nanoscale devices and circuits could enable diverse applications in nanoelectronics and photonics1. Individual semiconducting nanowires have already been configured as field-effect transistors2, photodetectors3 and bio/chemical sensors4. More sophisticated light-emitting diodes5 (LEDs) and complementary and diode logic6,7,8 devices have been realized using both n- and p-type semiconducting nanowires or nanotubes. The n- and p-type materials have been incorporated in these latter devices either by crossing p- and n-type nanowires2,5,6,9 or by lithographically defining distinct p- and n-type regions in nanotubes8,10, although both strategies limit device complexity. In the planar semiconductor industry, intricate n- and p-type and more generally compositionally modulated (that is, superlattice) structures are used to enable versatile electronic and photonic functions. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of semiconductor nanowire superlattices from group III–V and group IV materials. (The superlattices are created within the nanowires by repeated modulation of the vapour-phase semiconductor reactants during growth of the wires.) Compositionally modulated superlattices consisting of 2 to 21 layers of GaAs and GaP have been prepared. Furthermore, n-Si/p-Si and n-InP/p-InP modulation doped nanowires have been synthesized. Single-nanowire photoluminescence, electrical transport and electroluminescence measurements show the unique photonic and electronic properties of these nanowire superlattices, and suggest potential applications ranging from nano-barcodes to polarized nanoscale LEDs.

2,644 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
2021106
2020115
2019127
2018152
2017119