About: National security is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21215 publications have been published within this topic receiving 231106 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: The concept of soft power was coined by Joseph Nye in the late 1980s and has been used frequently and often incorrectly by political leaders, editorial writers, and academics around the world as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Joseph Nye coined the term "soft power" in the late 1980s. It is now used frequently-and often incorrectly-by political leaders, editorial writers, and academics around the world. So what is soft power? Soft power lies in the ability to attract and persuade. Whereas hard power-the ability to coerce-grows out of a country's military or economic might, soft power arises from the attractiveness of a country's culture, political ideals, and policies. Hard power remains crucial in a world of states trying to guard their independence and of non-state groups willing to turn to violence. It forms the core of the Bush administration's new national security strategy. But according to Nye, the neo-conservatives who advise the president are making a major miscalculation: They focus too heavily on using America's military power to force other nations to do our will, and they pay too little heed to our soft power. It is soft power that will help prevent terrorists from recruiting supporters from among the moderate majority. And it is soft power that will help us deal with critical global issues that require multilateral cooperation among states. That is why it is so essential that America better understands and applies our soft power. This book is our guide.
•01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the principal topics in current discussion of industrial and technology policy, defining innovation as the processes by which firms master and put into practice product designs and manufacturing processes that are new to them.
Abstract: This anthology examines national systems of technical innovation An introductory chapter provides an overview of the principal topics in current discussion of industrial and technology policy Innovation is defined as the processes by which firms master and put into practice product designs and manufacturing processes that are new to them A wide range of factors, organizations, and policies influence the capabilities of a nation's firms to innovate Technology and pure science are distinguished, and the social institutions that play a role in innovation are examined These include industrial and government research laboratories, research universities, and industrial policy agencies These institutions provide the core for the analyses of national innovation systems Individual chapters are devoted to six large high-income countries (France, Italy, Japan, the US, the UK, and West Germany), four smaller high-income countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, and Sweden), and five lower income countries (Argentina, Brazil, Israel, Korea, and Taiwan) Each chapter is a detailed description of each country's structure and behavior in the development of product and process technologies, and catalogues the innovation strategies of each country, covering topics including historical analysis of technological development, breakdown of industries, and investigation of these institutions in terms of R&D expenditures and their influence Differences in the innovative patterns include size and resource endowments, national security considerations, and historical and social beliefs Factors leading to effective innovative performance include strong core competencies, high-quality education and training, and stable and facilitative economic and trade policies A final retrospective chapter compares and contrasts the various innovation systems It assesses whether identifying an innovation system is useful, considers whether national institutions matter when commerce and technology are becoming transnational, and reflects on the future of national systems in such a world (TNM)
30 Sep 1997
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe how actors are synthesized by actors in the military sector, the environmental sector, economic sector, socio-economic sector, and the political sector.
Abstract: Security Analysis: Conceptual Apparatus The Military Sector The Environmental Sector The Economic Sector The Societal Sector The Political Sector How Sectors are Synthesized by Actors.
TL;DR: In the post-Cold War era, Western policymakers have sought to create security arrangements in Europe, as well as in other regions of the globe, that are based on international institutions.
Abstract: Since the Cold War ended, Western policymakers have sought to create security arrangements in Europe, as well as in other regions of the globe, that are based on international institutions In doing so, they explicitly reject balance-of-power politics as an organizing concept for the post-Cold War world During the 1992 presidential campaign, for example, President Clinton declared that, “in a world where freedom, not tyranny, is on the march, the cynical calculus of pure power politics simply does not compute It is ill-suited to a new era” Before taking office, Anthony Lake, the president’s national security adviser, criticized the Bush administration for viewing the world through a “classic balance of power prism,” whereas he and Mr Clinton took a “more ‘neo-Wilsonian’ view” 1
TL;DR: The state is not the reality which stands behind the mask of political practice as discussed by the authors, but the mask which prevents us from seeing political practice as it is, it is itselfthe mask that prevents our seeing political practices as they are.
Abstract: The state is not the reality which stands behind the mask of political practice. It is itselfthe mask which prevents our seeing political practice as it is. There is a state-system: a palpable nexus of practice and institutional stucture centred in government and more or less extensive, unified and dominant in any given society. There is, too, a state-idea, projected, purveyed and variously believed in in different societies at different times. We are only making difficulties for ourselves in supposing that we have also to study the state - an entity, agent, function or relation over and above the state-system and the state-idea. The state comes into being as a stucturation within political practice: it starts its life as an implicit construct: it is then reified - as the res publica. the public reifkation. no less - and acquires an overt symbolic identity progressively divorced from practice as an illusory account of practice. The ideological function is extended to a point where conservatives and radicals alike believe that their practice is not directed at each other but at the state; the world of illusion prevails. The task of the sociologist is to demystify; and in this context that means attending to the senses in which the state does not exist rather than to those in which it does. When the state itself it is danger', Lord Denning said in his judgment yesterday, "our cherished freedoms may have to take second place. and even natural justice itself may have to suffer a setback'. 'The flaw in Lord Denning's argument is that it is the government who decide what the interests of the state should be and which invokes 'national security' as the state chooses to define it'. Ms Pat Hewitt. director of the National Council for Civil Liberties, said yesterday'. The Guardian. 18.2.77 ttt**
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