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Natural fiber

About: Natural fiber is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5402 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 165550 citation(s). The topic is also known as: natural fibre.

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Abstract: This review article concerning natural and man-made cellulose fibre reinforced plastics, introduces possible applications of this material group. The physical properties of natural fibres are mainly determined by the chemical and physical composition, such as the structure of fibres, cellulose content, angle of fibrils, cross-section, and by the degree of polymerization. Only a few characteristic values, but especially the specific mechanical properties, can reach comparable values of traditional reinforcing fibres. This physical structure can be modified by using alkali treatment and acetylation processes. The application of natural fibres as reinforcements in composite materials requires, just as for glass-fibre reinforced composites, a strong adhesion between the fibre and the matrix, regardless of whether a traditional polymer (thermoplastics or thermosets) matrix, a biodegradable polymer matrix or cement is used. Further this article gives a survey about physical and chemical treatment methods which improve the fibre matrix adhesion, their results and effects on the physical properties of composites. These different treatments change among others the hydrophilic character of the natural fibres, so that moisture effects in the composite are reduced. To bring about hydrophobic properties to natural fibres, a special treatment, termed acetylation, can be used. The effectiveness of this method is strongly influenced by the treatment conditions used. The mechanical and other physical properties of the composite are generally dependent on the fibre content, which also determines the possible amount of coupling agents in the composite. The influence of such treatments by taking into account fibre content on the creep, quasi-static, cyclic dynamic and impact behaviour of natural fibre reinforced plastics are discussed in detail. For special performance requirements, hybrid composites made of natural and conventional fibres can be prepared with desired properties. The processing conditions play, next to the mechanical properties of natural fibres, an important role for the industrial use of these materials. The results presented in this paper show, that natural fibres can be processed with the already commonly applied methods: glass mat thermoplastic matrix (GMT), sheet moulding compound (SMC) or bulk moulding compound (BMC). For the processing of thermoplastics reinforced with natural fibres, new methods (e.g. the “EXPRESS” processing) are of increasing importance. Natural fibres seem to have little resistance towards environmental influences. This can be recognized in the composite and can be advantageously utilized for the development of biological degradable composites with good physical properties.

3,889 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Due to environment and sustainability issues, this century has witnessed remarkable achievements in green technology in the field of materials science through the development of biocomposites. The development of high-performance materials made from natural resources is increasing worldwide. The greatest challenge in working with natural fiber reinforced plastic composites is their large variation in properties and characteristics. A biocomposite's properties are influenced by a number of variables, including the fiber type, environmental conditions (where the plant fibers are sourced), processing methods, and any modification of the fiber. It is also known that recently there has been a surge of interest in the industrial applications of composites containing biofibers reinforced with biopolymers. Biopolymers have seen a tremendous increase in use as a matrix for biofiber reinforced composites. A comprehensive review of literature (from 2000 to 2010) on the mostly readily utilized natural fibers and biopolymers is presented in this paper. The overall characteristics of reinforcing fibers used in biocomposites, including source, type, structure, composition, as well as mechanical properties, will be reviewed. Moreover, the modification methods; physical (corona and plasma treatment) and chemical (silane, alkaline, acetylation, maleated coupling, and enzyme treatment) will be discussed. The most popular matrices in biofiber reinforced composites based on petrochemical and renewable resources will also be addressed. The wide variety of biocomposite processing techniques as well as the factors (moisture content, fiber type and content, coupling agents and their influence on composites properties) affecting these processes will be discussed. Prior to the processing of biocomposites, semi-finished product manufacturing is also vital, which will be illustrated. Processing technologies for biofiber reinforced composites will be discussed based on thermoplastic matrices (compression molding, extrusion, injection molding, LFT-D-method, and thermoforming), and thermosets (resin transfer molding, sheet molding compound). Other implemented processes, i.e., thermoset compression molding and pultrusion and their influence on mechanical performance (tensile, flexural and impact properties) will also be evaluated. Finally, the review will conclude with recent developments and future trends of biocomposites as well as key issues that need to be addressed and resolved.

2,573 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Natural fiber reinforced composites is an emerging area in polymer science. These natural fibers are low cost fibers with low density and high specific properties. These are biodegradable and non-abrasive. The natural fiber composites offer specific properties comparable to those of conventional fiber composites. However, in development of these composites, the incompatibility of the fibers and poor resistance to moisture often reduce the potential of natural fibers and these draw backs become critical issue. This review presents the reported work on natural fiber reinforced composites with special reference to the type of fibers, matrix polymers, treatment of fibers and fiber-matrix interface. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv in Polymer Techn 18: 351–363, 1999

2,031 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Studies on the use of natural fibers as replacement to man-made fiber in fiber-reinforced composites have increased and opened up further industrial possibilities. Natural fibers have the advantages of low density, low cost, and biodegradability. However, the main disadvantages of natural fibers in composites are the poor compatibility between fiber and matrix and the relative high moisture sorption. Therefore, chemical treatments are considered in modifying the fiber surface properties. In this paper, the different chemical modifications on natural fibers for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites are reviewed. Chemical treatments including alkali, silane, acetylation, benzoylation, acrylation, maleated coupling agents, isocyanates, permanganate and others are discussed. The chemical treatment of fiber aimed at improving the adhesion between the fiber surface and the polymer matrix may not only modify the fiber surface but also increase fiber strength. Water absorption of composites is reduced and their mechanical properties are improved.

1,914 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Natural fibers are emerging as low cost, lightweight and apparently environmentally superior alternatives to glass fibers in composites. We review select comparative life cycle assessment studies of natural fiber and glass fiber composites, and identify key drivers of their relative environmental performance. Natural fiber composites are likely to be environmentally superior to glass fiber composites in most cases for the following reasons: (1) natural fiber production has lower environmental impacts compared to glass fiber production; (2) natural fiber composites have higher fiber content for equivalent performance, reducing more polluting base polymer content; (3) the light-weight natural fiber composites improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions in the use phase of the component, especially in auto applications; and (4) end of life incineration of natural fibers results in recovered energy and carbon credits.

1,599 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years