Topic

# Nearest neighbor search

About: Nearest neighbor search is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5757 publications have been published within this topic receiving 212536 citations. The topic is also known as: proximity search & similarity search.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

•

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, a Mahanalobis distance metric for k-NN classification is trained with the goal that the k-nearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin.

Abstract: We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classification by semidefinite programming. The metric is trained with the goal that the k-nearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. On seven data sets of varying size and difficulty, we find that metrics trained in this way lead to significant improvements in kNN classification—for example, achieving a test error rate of 1.3% on the MNIST handwritten digits. As in support vector machines (SVMs), the learning problem reduces to a convex optimization based on the hinge loss. Unlike learning in SVMs, however, our framework requires no modification or extension for problems in multiway (as opposed to binary) classification.

4,430 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present two algorithms for the approximate nearest neighbor problem in high-dimensional spaces, for data sets of size n living in R d, which require space that is only polynomial in n and d.

Abstract: We present two algorithms for the approximate nearest neighbor problem in high-dimensional spaces. For data sets of size n living in R d , the algorithms require space that is only polynomial in n and d, while achieving query times that are sub-linear in n and polynomial in d. We also show applications to other high-dimensional geometric problems, such as the approximate minimum spanning tree. The article is based on the material from the authors' STOC'98 and FOCS'01 papers. It unifies, generalizes and simplifies the results from those papers.

4,288 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: This paper shows how to learn a Mahalanobis distance metric for kNN classification from labeled examples in a globally integrated manner and finds that metrics trained in this way lead to significant improvements in kNN Classification.

Abstract: The accuracy of k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classification depends significantly on the metric used to compute distances between different examples. In this paper, we show how to learn a Mahalanobis distance metric for kNN classification from labeled examples. The Mahalanobis metric can equivalently be viewed as a global linear transformation of the input space that precedes kNN classification using Euclidean distances. In our approach, the metric is trained with the goal that the k-nearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. As in support vector machines (SVMs), the margin criterion leads to a convex optimization based on the hinge loss. Unlike learning in SVMs, however, our approach requires no modification or extension for problems in multiway (as opposed to binary) classification. In our framework, the Mahalanobis distance metric is obtained as the solution to a semidefinite program. On several data sets of varying size and difficulty, we find that metrics trained in this way lead to significant improvements in kNN classification. Sometimes these results can be further improved by clustering the training examples and learning an individual metric within each cluster. We show how to learn and combine these local metrics in a globally integrated manner.

3,736 citations

•

[...]

TL;DR: Experimental results indicate that the novel scheme for approximate similarity search based on hashing scales well even for a relatively large number of dimensions, and provides experimental evidence that the method gives improvement in running time over other methods for searching in highdimensional spaces based on hierarchical tree decomposition.

Abstract: The nearestor near-neighbor query problems arise in a large variety of database applications, usually in the context of similarity searching. Of late, there has been increasing interest in building search/index structures for performing similarity search over high-dimensional data, e.g., image databases, document collections, time-series databases, and genome databases. Unfortunately, all known techniques for solving this problem fall prey to the \curse of dimensionality." That is, the data structures scale poorly with data dimensionality; in fact, if the number of dimensions exceeds 10 to 20, searching in k-d trees and related structures involves the inspection of a large fraction of the database, thereby doing no better than brute-force linear search. It has been suggested that since the selection of features and the choice of a distance metric in typical applications is rather heuristic, determining an approximate nearest neighbor should su ce for most practical purposes. In this paper, we examine a novel scheme for approximate similarity search based on hashing. The basic idea is to hash the points Supported by NAVY N00014-96-1-1221 grant and NSF Grant IIS-9811904. Supported by Stanford Graduate Fellowship and NSF NYI Award CCR-9357849. Supported by ARO MURI Grant DAAH04-96-1-0007, NSF Grant IIS-9811904, and NSF Young Investigator Award CCR9357849, with matching funds from IBM, Mitsubishi, Schlumberger Foundation, Shell Foundation, and Xerox Corporation. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage, the VLDB copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission of the Very Large Data Base Endowment. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and/or special permission from the Endowment. Proceedings of the 25th VLDB Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1999. from the database so as to ensure that the probability of collision is much higher for objects that are close to each other than for those that are far apart. We provide experimental evidence that our method gives signi cant improvement in running time over other methods for searching in highdimensional spaces based on hierarchical tree decomposition. Experimental results also indicate that our scheme scales well even for a relatively large number of dimensions (more than 50).

3,518 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: A novel Locality-Sensitive Hashing scheme for the Approximate Nearest Neighbor Problem under lp norm, based on p-stable distributions that improves the running time of the earlier algorithm and yields the first known provably efficient approximate NN algorithm for the case p<1.

Abstract: We present a novel Locality-Sensitive Hashing scheme for the Approximate Nearest Neighbor Problem under lp norm, based on p-stable distributions.Our scheme improves the running time of the earlier algorithm for the case of the lp norm. It also yields the first known provably efficient approximate NN algorithm for the case p

2,806 citations