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Nest

About: Nest is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13355 publications have been published within this topic receiving 323727 citations. The topic is also known as: nests & drey.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of variation and covariation of life history traits of 123 North American Passeriformes and Piciformes in relation to nest sites, nest predation, and foraging sites found that number of broods was much more strongly correlated with annual fecundity and adult survival among species than was clutch size, suggesting that clutch size may not be the primary fecundation trait on which selection is acting.
Abstract: Food limitation is generally thought to underlie much of the variation in life history traits of birds. I examined variation and covariation of life history traits of 123 North American Passeriformes and Piciformes in relation to nest sites, nest predation, and foraging sites to examine the possible roles of these ecological factors in life history evolution of birds. Annual fecundity was strongly inversely related to adult survivaI, even when phylogenetic effects were controlled. Only a little of the variation in fecundity and survival was related to foraging sites, whereas these traits varied strongly among nest sites. Interspecific differences in nest predation were correlated with much of the variation in life history traits among nest sites, although energy trade-offs with covarying traits also may account for some variation. For example, increased nest predation is associated with a shortened nestling period and both are associated with more broods per year, but number of broods is inversely correlated with clutch size, possibly due to an energy trade-off. Number of broods was much more strongly correlated with annual fecundity and adult survival among species than was clutch size, suggesting that clutch size may not be the primary fecundity trait on which selection is acting. Ultimately, food limitation may cause trade-offs between annual fecundity and adult survival, but differences among species in tecundity and adult survival may not be explained by differences in food abundance and instead represent differing tactics for partitioning similar levels of food limitation. Variation in fecundity and adult survival is more clearly organized by nest sites and more closely correlated with nest predation; species that use nest sites with greater nest predation have shorter nestling periods and more broods, yielding higher fecundity, which in turn is associated with reduced adult survival. Fecundity also varied with migratory tendencies; short-distance migrants had more broods and greater fecundity than did neotropical migrants and residents using similar nest sites. HowevEr, migratory tendencies and habitat use were confounded, making separation of these two effects difficult. Nonetheless, the conventional view that neotropical migrants have fewer broods than residents was not supported when nest site effects were controlled

1,411 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 2008-Ibis
TL;DR: There is a strong tendency for those young which are hatched earliest in the season to have the greatest chance of surviving to breed, and not all species are likely to be prevented, by food shortage, from breeding at the best time for raising young.
Abstract: Summary Examination of survival rdtes of nestlings and fledglings of some species show that there is a strong tendency for those young which are hatched earliest in the season to have the greatest chance of surviving to breed. Since natural selection so strongly favours parents who leave many surviving young, the question arises as to why other birds breed later than the date at which they could most successfully raise their young. It is suggested that the food supply for the breeding females immediately prior to the breeding season may limit their ability to form eggs and the females may thus not be able to lay at the time which would result in young being in the nest at the best time for raising them, but as soon after this time as the female is able to produce her eggs. Not all species are likely to be prevented, by food shortage, from breeding at the best time for raising young and the groups of birds most likely to be affected are discussed.

1,364 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

1,043 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1985-Ecology
TL;DR: Artificial nests with fresh quail eggs were placed in forests of different sizes in Maryland and Tennessee to test the hypothesis that migratory songbirds should be strongly affected by higher predation rates in small forest tracts.
Abstract: Nest predation has been suggested as an important cause of the decline of breeding populations of migratory songbirds in small woodlots in eastern North America. I tested this hypothesis by placing artificial nests with fresh quail eggs in forests of different sizes in Maryland and Tennessee. Predation rates were higher in small woodlots than in large tracts. Predation was especially intense in woodlots near suburban neighborhoods compared to woodlots in isolated rural areas. Experimental open-cup nests were more vulnerable to predators when placed on the ground vs. 1-2 m above ground. In either position these open-cup nests were more vulnerable to predators than experimental cavity nests. Since most species of migratory songbirds construct open-cup nests, and several species place them near the ground, migratory songbirds should be strongly affected by higher predation rates in small forest tracts.

1,032 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1978-Ecology
TL;DR: The results indicate that habitat suitability decreases with increasing numbers of nests toward the narrow field-forest edges, and that the cowbird was also a victim of the increased predation rate.
Abstract: Observations of 21 species of open-nesting passerines breeding in contiguous field and forest habitats at Rose Lake Wildlife Research Area, Michigan, were made during 1974 and 1975. Data were collected on nest dispersion, clutch-size, and fledging success in relation to the field-forest edge. Losses of eggs or nestlings were attributed to predation, inclement weather, Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism, nest desertion, hatching failure, and adult death. Each bird species seemed to have a preferred distance from the habitat discontinuity that was used as a nest site. Furthermore, nests were not uniformly distributed on the area. Over one-half of the nests were found within ?15 m of the habitat discontinuity. Seventy-five percent of the nests belonged to birds characteristic of mixed breeding habitats, i.e., birds requiring an open overstory canopy with elevated singing and observation perches and dense cover near the ground for nesting and feeding. These mixed-habitat species also accounted for the increase in avian species nesting near edges. Based on Kendall rank and partial rank correlation tests, increasing numbers of nests and the percentage of total clutches ^3 eggs were found to be negatively correlated with increasing distance from the habitat discontinuity. Correlation between fledging success and increasing distance from the edge was positive and highly significant. Of the several mortality factors investigated, predation and cowbird parasitism were found to be the most important. The increased predation rate with decreased distance from the edge was attributed primarily to a functional response to higher numbers of nests and a greater activity of potential nest predators in the vicinity of the habitat discontinuities. Our results indicate that habitat suitability decreases with increasing numbers of nests toward the narrow field-forest edges. Although such abrupt habitat discontinuities did attract a variety and abundance of birds characteristic of habitats with mixed life-form, these discontinuities seemed to function as "ecological traps" by concentrating nests and thereby increasing density-dependent mor? tality. Ironically, the cowbird was also a victim of the increased predation rate. As these man-made forest edges are of recent origin, they are perhaps unrepresentative of the ecological niche in which these species evolved, and thus they may be poorly adapted to cope with the increased nest predation.

1,026 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021408
2020441
2019418
2018437
2017476