About: Nestin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3234 publications have been published within this topic receiving 124225 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The predicted amino acid sequence of the nestin gene product shows that nestin defines a distinct sixth class of intermediate filament protein, extending a model in which transitions in intermediate filament gene expression reflect major steps in the pathway of neural differentiation.
Abstract: Multipotential CNS stem cells receive and implement instructions governing differentiation to diverse neuronal and glial fates. Exploration of the mechanisms generating the many cell types of the brain depends crucially on markers identifying the stem cell state. We describe a gene whose expression distinguishes the stem cells from the more differentiated cells in the neural tube. This gene was named nestin because it is specifically expressed in neuroepithelial stem cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of the nestin gene product shows that nestin defines a distinct sixth class of intermediate filament protein. These observations extend a model in which transitions in intermediate filament gene expression reflect major steps in the pathway of neural differentiation.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), identified using nestin expression, constitute an essential HSC niche component and are indicative of a unique niche in the bone marrow made of heterotypic stem-cell pairs.
Abstract: The cellular constituents forming the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow are unclear, with studies implicating osteoblasts, endothelial and perivascular cells. Here we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), identified using nestin expression, constitute an essential HSC niche component. Nestin(+) MSCs contain all the bone-marrow colony-forming-unit fibroblastic activity and can be propagated as non-adherent 'mesenspheres' that can self-renew and expand in serial transplantations. Nestin(+) MSCs are spatially associated with HSCs and adrenergic nerve fibres, and highly express HSC maintenance genes. These genes, and others triggering osteoblastic differentiation, are selectively downregulated during enforced HSC mobilization or beta3 adrenoreceptor activation. Whereas parathormone administration doubles the number of bone marrow nestin(+) cells and favours their osteoblastic differentiation, in vivo nestin(+) cell depletion rapidly reduces HSC content in the bone marrow. Purified HSCs home near nestin(+) MSCs in the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice, whereas in vivo nestin(+) cell depletion significantly reduces bone marrow homing of haematopoietic progenitors. These results uncover an unprecedented partnership between two distinct somatic stem-cell types and are indicative of a unique niche in the bone marrow made of heterotypic stem-cell pairs.
TL;DR: The discovery of BrdU-labeled neurons suggests that new neurons are recruited early from the pool of proliferating progenitor cells and lead to a lasting effect of adult neurogenesis.
Abstract: New neurons are continually generated in the adult hippocampus, but the important question, whether adult neurogenesis is transient or leads to the lasting presence of new neurons, has not yet been answered. Dividing cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were investigated by means of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy at several time-points 1 day to 11 months thereafter. BrdU-labeled neurons remained stable in number and in their relative position in the granule cell layer over at least 11 months. This finding implies that the addition of new neurons is not transient and that their final number and localization are determined early. By contrast, expression of immature markers β-III-tubulin and doublecortin in BrdU-labeled cells, peaked early after division and was not detectable after 4 weeks. In transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the nestin promoter none of the BrdU/nestin-positive cells early after division expressed the mature marker NeuN, confirming that no dividing neurons were detected. These new data suggest that new neurons are recruited early from the pool of proliferating progenitor cells and lead to a lasting effect of adult neurogenesis.
TL;DR: The data suggest that the latent critical stem cell characteristics can be epigenetically induced by growth conditions not only in cells from neurogenic regions of normal CNS but also in cells in cortical glial tumors.
Abstract: Neural stem cells from neurogenic regions of mammalian CNS are clonogenic in an in vitro culture system exploiting serum and anchorage withdrawal in medium supplemented with methyl cellulose and the pleiotropic growth factors EGF, FGF2, and insulin. The aim of this study was to test whether cortical glial tumors contain stem-like cells capable, under this culture system, of forming clones showing intraclonal heterogeneity in the expression of neural lineage-specific proteins. The high frequencies of clone-forming cells (about 0.1-10 x 10(-3)) in clinical tumor specimens with mutated p53, and in neurogenic regions of normal human CNS, suggest that the ability to form clones in this culture system is induced epigenetically. RT-PCR analyses of populations of normal brain- and tumor-derived sister clones revealed transcripts for nestin, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, the tumor-derived clones were different from clones derived from neurogenic regions of normal brain in the expression of transcripts specific for genes associated with neural cell fate determination via the Notch-signaling pathway (Delta and Jagged), and cell survival at G2 or mitotic phases (Survivin). Moreover, the individual glioma-derived clones contain cells immunopositive separately for GFAP or neuronal beta-III tubulin, as well as single cells coexpressing both glial and neuronal markers. The data suggest that the latent critical stem cell characteristics can be epigenetically induced by growth conditions not only in cells from neurogenic regions of normal CNS but also in cells from cortical glial tumors. Moreover, tumor stem-like cells with genetically defective responses to epigenetic stimuli may contribute to gliomagenesis and the developmental pathological heterogeneity of glial tumors.
TL;DR: Following neuronal induction of murine and human ADAS cells, Western blot analysis confirmed GFAP, nestin, and NeuN protein expression and Pretreatment with EGF and basic FGF augmented the neuronal differentiation of huADAS cells.
Abstract: The identification of cells capable of neuronal differentiation has great potential for cellular therapies. We examined whether murine and human adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells can be induced to undergo neuronal differentiation. We isolated ADAS cells from the adipose tissue of adult BalbC mice or from human liposuction tissue and induced neuronal differentiation with valproic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, insulin, and hydrocortisone. As early as 1-3 h after neuronal induction, the phenotype of ADAS cells changed towards neuronal morphology. Following neuronal induction, muADAS cells displayed immunocytochemical staining for GFAP, nestin and NeuN and huADAS cells displayed staining for intermediate filament M, nestin, and NeuN. Following neuronal induction of murine and human ADAS cells, Western blot analysis confirmed GFAP, nestin, and NeuN protein expression. Pretreatment with EGF and basic FGF augmented the neuronal differentiation of huADAS cells. The neuronal differentiation of stromal cells from adipose tissue has broad biological and clinical implications.