Topic

# Network tomography

About: Network tomography is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 532 publications have been published within this topic receiving 10300 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the problem of estimating the node-to-node traffic intensity from repeated measurements of traffic on the links of a network is formulated and discussed under Poisson assumptions and two types of traffic-routing regimens: deterministic (a fixed known path between each directed pair of nodes) and Markovian (a random path between a pair of vertices, determined according to a known Markov chain fixed for that pair).

Abstract: The problem of estimating the node-to-node traffic intensity from repeated measurements of traffic on the links of a network is formulated and discussed under Poisson assumptions and two types of traffic-routing regimens: deterministic (a fixed known path between each directed pair of nodes) and Markovian (a random path between each directed pair of nodes, determined according to a known Markov chain fixed for that pair). Maximum likelihood estimation and related approximations are discussed, and computational difficulties are pointed out. A detailed methodology is presented for estimates based on the method of moments. The estimates are derived algorithmically, taking advantage of the fact that the first and second moment equations give rise to a linear inverse problem with positivity restrictions that can be approached by an EM algorithm, resulting in a particularly simple solution to a hard problem. A small simulation study is carried out.

801 citations

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TL;DR: This article introduces the new field of network tomography, a field which it is believed will benefit greatly from the wealth of signal processing theory and algorithms.

Abstract: Today's Internet is a massive, distributed network which continues to explode in size as e-commerce and related activities grow. The heterogeneous and largely unregulated structure of the Internet renders tasks such as dynamic routing, optimized service provision, service-level verification, and detection of anomalous/malicious behavior increasingly challenging tasks. The problem is compounded by the fact that one cannot rely on the cooperation of individual servers and routers to aid in the collection of network traffic measurements vital for these tasks. In many ways, network monitoring and inference problems bear a strong resemblance to other "inverse problems" in which key aspects of a system are not directly observable. Familiar signal processing problems such as tomographic image reconstruction, system identification, and array processing all have interesting interpretations in the networking context. This article introduces the new field of network tomography, a field which we believe will benefit greatly from the wealth of signal processing theory and algorithms.

556 citations

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TL;DR: This article introduces network tomography, a new field which it is believed will benefit greatly from the wealth of statistical methods and algorithms including the application of pseudo-likelihood methods and tree estimation formulations.

Abstract: Today's Internet is a massive, distributed network which contin- ues to explode in size as e-commerce and related activities grow. The hetero- geneous and largely unregulated structure of the Internet renders tasks such as dynamic routing, optimized service provision, service level verification and detection of anomalous/malicious behavior extremely challenging. The problem is compounded by the fact that one cannot rely on the cooperation of individual servers and routers to aid in the collection of network traffic measurements vital for these tasks. In many ways, network monitoring and inference problems bear a strong resemblance to other "inverse problems" in which key aspects of a system are not directly observable. Familiar sig- nal processing or statistical problems such as tomographic image reconstruc- tion and phylogenetic tree identification have interesting connections to those arising in networking. This article introduces network tomography, a new field which we believe will benefit greatly from the wealth of statistical the- ory and algorithms. It focuses especially on recent developments in the field including the application of pseudo-likelihood methods and tree estimation formulations.

483 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce the use of end-to-end measurements of multicast traffic to infer network-internal characteristics and develop a maximum-likelihood estimator for loss rates on internal links based on losses observed by multicast receivers.

Abstract: Robust measurements of network dynamics are increasingly important to the design and operation of large internetworks like the Internet. However, administrative diversity makes it impractical to monitor every link on an end-to-end path. At the same time, it is difficult to determine the performance characteristics of individual links from end-to-end measurements of unicast traffic. In this paper, we introduce the use of end-to-end measurements of multicast traffic to infer network-internal characteristics. The bandwidth efficiency of multicast traffic makes it suitable for large-scale measurements of both end-to-end and internal network dynamics. We develop a maximum-likelihood estimator for loss rates on internal links based on losses observed by multicast receivers. It exploits the inherent correlation between such observations to infer the performance of paths between branch points in the tree spanning a multicast source and its receivers. We derive its rate of convergence as the number of measurements increases, and we establish robustness with respect to certain generalizations of the underlying model. We validate these techniques through simulation and discuss possible extensions and applications of this work

440 citations

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01 Jun 2002TL;DR: This paper considers the problem of inferring link-level loss rates from end-to-end multicast measurements taken from a collection of trees, and presents two algorithms to perform the link- level inferences.

Abstract: In this paper we consider the problem of inferring link-level loss rates from end-to-end multicast measurements taken from a collection of trees. We give conditions under which loss rates are identifiable on a specified set of links. Two algorithms are presented to perform the link-level inferences for those links on which losses can be identified. One, the minimum variance weighted average (MVWA) algorithm treats the trees separately and then averages the results. The second, based on expectation-maximization (EM) merges all of the measurements into one computation. Simulations show that EM is slightly more accurate than MVWA, most likely due to its more efficient use of the measurements. We also describe extensions to the inference of link-level delay, inference from end-to-end unicast measurements, and inference when some measurements are missing.

280 citations