Topic

# Network topology

About: Network topology is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 52259 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1006627 citation(s).

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TL;DR: A distinctive feature of this work is to address consensus problems for networks with directed information flow by establishing a direct connection between the algebraic connectivity of the network and the performance of a linear consensus protocol.

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss consensus problems for networks of dynamic agents with fixed and switching topologies. We analyze three cases: 1) directed networks with fixed topology; 2) directed networks with switching topology; and 3) undirected networks with communication time-delays and fixed topology. We introduce two consensus protocols for networks with and without time-delays and provide a convergence analysis in all three cases. We establish a direct connection between the algebraic connectivity (or Fiedler eigenvalue) of the network and the performance (or negotiation speed) of a linear consensus protocol. This required the generalization of the notion of algebraic connectivity of undirected graphs to digraphs. It turns out that balanced digraphs play a key role in addressing average-consensus problems. We introduce disagreement functions for convergence analysis of consensus protocols. A disagreement function is a Lyapunov function for the disagreement network dynamics. We proposed a simple disagreement function that is a common Lyapunov function for the disagreement dynamics of a directed network with switching topology. A distinctive feature of this work is to address consensus problems for networks with directed information flow. We provide analytical tools that rely on algebraic graph theory, matrix theory, and control theory. Simulations are provided that demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

10,379 citations

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TL;DR: A theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multi-agent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, time-delays, and performance guarantees is provided.

Abstract: This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multi-agent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, time-delays, and performance guarantees. An overview of basic concepts of information consensus in networks and methods of convergence and performance analysis for the algorithms are provided. Our analysis framework is based on tools from matrix theory, algebraic graph theory, and control theory. We discuss the connections between consensus problems in networked dynamic systems and diverse applications including synchronization of coupled oscillators, flocking, formation control, fast consensus in small-world networks, Markov processes and gossip-based algorithms, load balancing in networks, rendezvous in space, distributed sensor fusion in sensor networks, and belief propagation. We establish direct connections between spectral and structural properties of complex networks and the speed of information diffusion of consensus algorithms. A brief introduction is provided on networked systems with nonlocal information flow that are considerably faster than distributed systems with lattice-type nearest neighbor interactions. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the role of small-world effects on the speed of consensus algorithms and cooperative control of multivehicle formations

8,696 citations

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TL;DR: ResNeXt as discussed by the authors is a simple, highly modularized network architecture for image classification, which is constructed by repeating a building block that aggregates a set of transformations with the same topology.

Abstract: We present a simple, highly modularized network architecture for image classification. Our network is constructed by repeating a building block that aggregates a set of transformations with the same topology. Our simple design results in a homogeneous, multi-branch architecture that has only a few hyper-parameters to set. This strategy exposes a new dimension, which we call cardinality (the size of the set of transformations), as an essential factor in addition to the dimensions of depth and width. On the ImageNet-1K dataset, we empirically show that even under the restricted condition of maintaining complexity, increasing cardinality is able to improve classification accuracy. Moreover, increasing cardinality is more effective than going deeper or wider when we increase the capacity. Our models, named ResNeXt, are the foundations of our entry to the ILSVRC 2016 classification task in which we secured 2nd place. We further investigate ResNeXt on an ImageNet-5K set and the COCO detection set, also showing better results than its ResNet counterpart. The code and models are publicly available online.

5,343 citations

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TL;DR: These power-laws hold for three snapshots of the Internet, between November 1997 and December 1998, despite a 45% growth of its size during that period, and can be used to generate and select realistic topologies for simulation purposes.

Abstract: Despite the apparent randomness of the Internet, we discover some surprisingly simple power-laws of the Internet topology. These power-laws hold for three snapshots of the Internet, between November 1997 and December 1998, despite a 45% growth of its size during that period. We show that our power-laws fit the real data very well resulting in correlation coefficients of 96% or higher.Our observations provide a novel perspective of the structure of the Internet. The power-laws describe concisely skewed distributions of graph properties such as the node outdegree. In addition, these power-laws can be used to estimate important parameters such as the average neighborhood size, and facilitate the design and the performance analysis of protocols. Furthermore, we can use them to generate and select realistic topologies for simulation purposes.

4,954 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: Worst-case bounds on delay and backlog are derived for leaky bucket constrained sessions in arbitrary topology networks of generalized processor sharing (GPS) servers and the effectiveness of PGPS in guaranteeing worst-case session delay is demonstrated under certain assignments.

Abstract: Worst-case bounds on delay and backlog are derived for leaky bucket constrained sessions in arbitrary topology networks of generalized processor sharing (GPS) servers. The inherent flexibility of the service discipline is exploited to analyze broad classes of networks. When only a subset of the sessions are leaky bucket constrained, we give succinct per-session bounds that are independent of the behavior of the other sessions and also of the network topology. However, these bounds are only shown to hold for each session that is guaranteed a backlog clearing rate that exceeds the token arrival rate of its leaky bucket. A much broader class of networks, called consistent relative session treatment (CRST) networks is analyzed for the case in which all of the sessions are leaky bucket constrained. First, an algorithm is presented that characterizes the internal traffic in terms of average rate and burstiness, and it is shown that all CRST networks are stable. Next, a method is presented that yields bounds on session delay and backlog given this internal traffic characterization. The links of a route are treated collectively, yielding tighter bounds than those that result from adding the worst-case delays (backlogs) at each of the links in the route. The bounds on delay and backlog for each session are efficiently computed from a universal service curve, and it is shown that these bounds are achieved by "staggered" greedy regimes when an independent sessions relaxation holds. Propagation delay is also incorporated into the model. Finally, the analysis of arbitrary topology GPS networks is related to Packet GPS networks (PGPS). The PGPS scheme was first proposed by Demers, Shenker and Keshav (1991) under the name of weighted fair queueing. For small packet sizes, the behavior of the two schemes is seen to be virtually identical, and the effectiveness of PGPS in guaranteeing worst-case session delay is demonstrated under certain assignments. >

3,906 citations