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Neurocognitive

About: Neurocognitive is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11603 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 423462 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1176/AJP.153.3.321
Michael F. Green1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Objective : It has been well established that schizophrenic patients have neurocognitive deficits, but it is not known how these deficits influence the daily lives of patients. The goal of this review was to determine which, if any, neurocognitive deficits restrict the functioning of schizophrenic patients in the outside world. Method : The author reviewed studies that have evaluated neurocognitive measures as predictors and correlates of functional outcome for schizophrenic patients. The review included 1) studies that have prospectively evaluated specific aspects of neurocognition and community (e.g., social and vocational) functioning (six studies), 2) all known studies of neurocognitive correlates of social problem solving (five studies), and 3) all known studies of the neurocognitive correlates and predictors of psychosocial skill acquisition (six studies). Results : Despite wide variation among studies in the selection of neurocognitive measures, some consistencies emerged. The most consistent finding was that verbal memory was associated with all types of functional outcome. Vigilance was related to social problem solving and skill acquisition. Card sorting predicted community functioning but not social problem solving. Negative symptoms were associated with social problem solving but not skill acquisition. Notably, psychotic symptoms were not significantly associated with outcome measures in any of the studies reviewed. Conclusions : Verbal memory and vigilance appear to be necessary for adequate functional outcome. Deficiencies in these areas may prevent patients from attaining optimal adaptation and hence act as neurocognitive rate-limiting factors. On the basis of this review of the literature, a series of hypotheses are offered for follow-up studies.

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Topics: Neurocognitive (61%), Cognitive remediation therapy (60%), Social problem-solving (53%) ...read more

3,340 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPSYCH.2005.02.006
Abstract: One of the most prominent neuropsychologic theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that its symptoms arise from a primary deficit in executive functions (EF), defined as neurocognitive processes that maintain an appropriate problem-solving set to attain a later goal. To examine the validity of the EF theory, we conducted a meta-analysis of 83 studies that administered EF measures to groups with ADHD (total N = 3734) and without ADHD ( N = 2969). Groups with ADHD exhibited significant impairment on all EF tasks. Effect sizes for all measures fell in the medium range (.46–.69), but the strongest and most consistent effects were obtained on measures of response inhibition, vigilance, working memory, and planning. Weaknesses in EF were significant in both clinic-referred and community samples and were not explained by group differences in intelligence, academic achievement, or symptoms of other disorders. ADHD is associated with significant weaknesses in several key EF domains. However, moderate effect sizes and lack of universality of EF deficits among individuals with ADHD suggest that EF weaknesses are neither necessary nor sufficient to cause all cases of ADHD. Difficulties with EF appear to be one important component of the complex neuropsychology of ADHD.

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2,910 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.SCHBUL.A033430
Abstract: There has been a surge of interest in the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The published literature in this area has doubled in the last few years. In this paper, we will attempt to confirm the conclusions from a previous review that certain neurocognitive domains (secondary verbal memory, immediate memory, executive functioning as measured by card sorting, and vigilance) are associated with functional outcome. In addition to surveying the number of replicated findings and tallying box scores of results, we will approach the review of the studies in a more thorough and empirical manner by applying a meta-analysis. Lastly, we will discuss what we see as a key limitation of this literature, specifically, the relatively narrow selection of predictor measures. This limitation has constrained identification of mediating variables that may explain the mechanisms for these relationships.

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2,767 Citations


Open accessBookDOI: 10.4324/9781410601988
01 Jan 1992-
Abstract: The study of age-related changes in cognitive processes is flourishing as never before, making the area an exciting one for a growing number of researchers. In addition, cognitive aging research is moving out from its traditional roots in experimental and developmental psychology -- creating increased contact with cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience. To reflect these changes in the field, this volume includes chapters on abnormal aging, the neuroscience of aging, and applied cognitive psychology along with the core section on basic cognitive processes. While other recent compilations of research in this area have given relatively brief overviews of the literature, the contributors were given space to review each topic in depth, asked to evaluate the field -- not simply their own contributions -- and to provide critical commentaries from their personal perspectives. Couched most often in terms of cognitive or information-processing models, the general perspective of the contributors is a biologically-based account of aging. This shared viewpoint gives the volume particular coherence in its treatment of theories and data. Topics covered include age differences in attention, perception, memory, knowledge representation, reasoning, and language as well as their neuropsychological and neurological correlates and practical implications.

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Topics: Cognitive neuropsychology (66%), Cognitive neuroscience (63%), Cognitive development (62%) ...read more

2,377 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037//0894-4105.12.3.426
Abstract: The neurocognitive literature on test performance in schizophrenia is reviewed quantitatively. The authors report 22 mean effect sizes from 204 studies to index schizophrenia versus control differences in global and selective verbal memory, nonverbal memory, bilateral and unilateral motor performance, visual and auditory attention, general intelligence, spatial ability, executive function, language, and interhemispheric tactile-transfer test performance. Moderate to large raw effect sizes (d > .60) were obtained for all 22 neurocognitive test variables, and none of the associated confidence intervals included zero. The results indicate that schizophrenia is characterized by a broadly based cognitive impairment, with varying degrees of deficit in all ability domains measured by standard clinical tests.

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Topics: Neurocognitive (59%), Verbal memory (56%), Neuropsychological test (54%) ...read more

2,318 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202224
20211,045
2020887
2019895
2018782
2017881

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Steven Paul Woods

79 papers, 3.1K citations

Igor Grant

76 papers, 6.2K citations

Robert K. Heaton

55 papers, 4.5K citations

Michael F. Green

45 papers, 7.6K citations

Raquel E. Gur

44 papers, 2.5K citations

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