About: Neurocysticercosis is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2846 publications have been published within this topic receiving 55310 citations. The topic is also known as: Cysticercosis of central nervous system & Brain Cysticercosis.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed for immunodiagnosing human cysticercosis and identified seven major glycoprotein bands that are commonly recognized by virtually all serum and/or CSF samples from patients with confirmed cysticERCosis.
Abstract: An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed for immunodiagnosing human cysticercosis. The assay uses lentil-lectin, affinity-purified glycoprotein antigens. A battery of 532 serum and 46 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (148 cases of parasitologically confirmed cysticercosis, 54 healthy controls, and 18 types of heterologous infections [376 cases]) were used to ascertain the assay's efficacy. All but three of the samples from cases of confirmed cysticercosis were positive; none of the samples from healthy controls or heterologous infections reacted to any of the diagnostic bands. Thus, the assay is 98% sensitive and 100% specific. We identified seven major glycoprotein bands that are commonly recognized by virtually all serum and/or CSF samples from patients with confirmed cysticercosis. There was no significant difference in test performance when CSF was compared with serum. The EITB assay is highly reproducible and simple to perform, and the reagents (including the antigens blotted onto strips) are very stable.
TL;DR: Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is provided based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data and Interpretation permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty.
Abstract: Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute--histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major--lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor--lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic--evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion; and 2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiologic criterion.
TL;DR: Clinical manifestations vary because of the variable number, size, and location of the cysts and the immune response of the host.
Abstract: The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures.
TL;DR: A classification is presented that separates active from nonactive forms of NCC and is based on the experience with 735 patients studied, and characteristics of each form, frequency of principal signs and symptoms, and findings in cerebrospinal fluid analysis are discussed.
Abstract: Cysticercosis of the central nervous system, because of the combination of inflammatory response, topography of lesions, degree of parasitic infestation, and sequelae of previous infestations produces a most variable clinical picture. The symptomatology may range from a discrete neurological disturbance to the most dramatic brain disorder. Severity of the disease, prognosis, and medical or surgical decision for treatment largely depend on the individual amalgam of the above-referred factors. An improved classification of neurocysticercosis (NCC) that delineates active from inactive forms of the disease will eventually be important in the research of immunodiagnosis and in therapeutic trials. In this report, a classification is presented that separates active from nonactive forms of NCC and is based on our experience with 735 patients studied. Characteristics of each form of NCC, frequency of principal signs and symptoms, and findings in cerebrospinal fluid analysis are discussed.
Cayetano Heredia University1, Imperial College London2, University of Cambridge3, National Institutes of Health4, University of São Paulo5, Baylor College of Medicine6, Christian Medical College & Hospital7, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention8, University of Salford9, National Autonomous University of Mexico10, National University of San Marcos11, Johns Hopkins University12
TL;DR: Overall, four general recommendations were made: individualize therapeutic decisions, including whether to use antiparasitic drugs, based on the number, location, and viability of the parasites within the nervous system.
Abstract: Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a common cause of epileptic seizures and other neurological morbidity in most developing countries. It is also an increasingly common diagnosis in industrialized countries because of immigration from areas where it is endemic. Its clinical manifestations are highly variable and depend on the number, stage, and size of the lesions and the host's immune response. In part due to this variability, major discrepancies exist in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. A panel of experts in taeniasis/cysticercosis discussed the evidence on treatment of neurocysticercosis for each clinical presentation, and we present the panel's consensus and areas of disagreement. Overall, four general recommendations were made: (i) individualize therapeutic decisions, including whether to use antiparasitic drugs, based on the number, location, and viability of the parasites within the nervous system; (ii) actively manage growing cysticerci either with antiparasitic drugs or surgical excision; (iii) prioritize the management of intracranial hypertension secondary to neurocysticercosis before considering any other form of therapy; and (iv) manage seizures as done for seizures due to other causes of secondary seizures (remote symptomatic seizures) because they are due to an organic focus that has been present for a long time.
Trending Questions (10)