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Neurotransmitter

About: Neurotransmitter is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12587 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 682657 citation(s). The topic is also known as: neurotransmitters.
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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Feb 1996-Nature
TL;DR: In homozygote mice, dopamine persists at least 100 times longer in the extracellular space, explaining the biochemical basis of the hyperdopaminergic phenotype and demonstrating the critical role of the transporter in regulating neurotransmission.
Abstract: Disruption of the mouse dopamine transporter gene results in spontaneous hyperlocomotion despite major adaptive changes, such as decreases in neurotransmitter and receptor levels. In homozygote mice, dopamine persists at least 100 times longer in the extracellular space, explaining the biochemical basis of the hyperdopaminergic phenotype and demonstrating the critical role of the transporter in regulating neurotransmission. The dopamine transporter is an obligatory target of cocaine and amphetamine, as these psychostimulants have no effect on locomotor activity or dopamine release and uptake in mice lacking the transporter.

2,343 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a recently discovered and highly unorthodox messenger molecule. Current evidence indicates that, in the CNS, NO is produced enzymatically in postsynaptic structures in response to activation of excitatory amino acid receptors. It then diffuses out to act on neighbouring cellular elements, probably presynaptic nerve endings and astrocyte processes. In several peripheral nerves, and quite possibly in parts of the CNS as well, NO might be formed presynaptically and thus act as a neurotransmitter. In both cases, a major action of NO is to activate soluble guanylate cyclase and so raise cGMP levels in target cells.

2,302 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mood, emotion, cognition, and motor functions as well as circadian and neuroendocrine rhythms, including food intake, sleep, and reproductive activity, are modulated by the midbrain raphe serotonin (5‐HT) system and allele‐dependent differential 5‐HTT promoter activity may play a role in the expression and modulation of complex traits and behavior.
Abstract: Mood, emotion, cognition, and motor functions as well as circadian and neuroendocrine rhythms, including food intake, sleep, and reproductive activity, are modulated by the midbrain raphe serotonin (5-HT) system. By directing the magnitude and duration of postsynaptic responses, carrier-facilitated 5-HT transport into and release from the presynaptic neuron are essential for the fine tuning of serotonergic neurotransmission. Interest in the mechanism of environmental factor-, disease-, and therapy-induced modification of 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) function and its impact on early brain development, event-related synaptic plasticity, and neurodegeneration is widespread and intensifying. We have recently characterized the human and murine 5-HTT genes and performed functional analyses of their 5'-flanking regulatory regions. A tandemly repeated sequence associated with the transcriptional apparatus of the human 5-HTT gene displays a complex secondary structure, represses promoter activity in nonserotonergic neuronal cells, and contains positive regulatory components. We now report a novel polymorphism of this repetitive element and provide evidence for allele-dependent differential 5-HTT promoter activity. Allelic variation in 5-HTT-related functions may play a role in the expression and modulation of complex traits and behavior.

2,166 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor channels, which are the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS.
Abstract: This chapter discusses the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor channels, which are the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Following release from presynaptic vesicles, GABA exerts fast inhibitory effects by interacting with GABA receptors, whose primary function is to hyperpolarize neuronal membranes in mature CNS neurons. GABA receptors are found both presynaptically, where they decrease the likelihood of neurotransmitter release, and postsynaptically, where they decrease the likelihood of neuronal firing. There are two types of GABA receptor, termed GABA A and GABA B receptors. GABA A receptors are fast-activating Clˉ channels from the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels. Activation of GABA A receptors causes membrane hyperpolarization by allowing Clˉ influx, reflecting the relatively low concentration of Clˉ found intracellularly in most adult CNS neurons. GABA A receptors can also mediate depolarizing responses in most immature CNS neurons and in mature peripheral neurons.

1,939 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While the evidence is strong that dopamine plays some fundamental and special role in the rewarding effects of brain stimulation, psychomotor stimulants, opiates, and food, the exact nature of that role is not clear and dopamine is not the only reward transmitter, and dopaminergic neurons are not the final common path for all rewards.
Abstract: While the evidence is strong that dopamine plays some fundamental and special role in the rewarding effects of brain stimulation, psychomotor stimulants, opiates, and food, the exact nature of that role is not clear. One thing is clear: Dopamine is not the only reward transmitter, and dopaminergic neurons are not the final common path for all rewards. Dopamine antagonists and lesions of the dopamine systems appear to spare the rewarding effects of nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex brain stimulation (Simon et al 1979) and certainly spare the rewarding effects of apomorphine (Roberts & Vickers 1988). It is clear that reward circuitry is multisynaptic, and since dopamine cells do not send axons to each other or receive axons from each other, dopamine can at best serve as but a single link in this circuitry. If dopamine is not a final common path for all rewards, could it be an intermediate common path for most rewards? Some workers have argued against such a view, but at present they must do so on incomplete evidence. For example, Phillips (1984) has argued that there must be multiple reward systems, functionally independent and organized in parallel with one another. His primary evidence, however, is the fact that brain stimulation is rewarding at different levels of the nervous system. As we have seen in the case of midline mesencephalic stimulation, the location of the electrode tip in relation to the dopamine cells and fibers tells us little about the role of dopamine in brain stimulation reward. It seems clear that the ventral tegmental dopamine system plays a critical role in midline mesencephalic reward, despite the distance from the electrode tip to the dopamine cells where morphine causes its dopamine-dependent facilitory effects or to the dopamine terminals where low-dose neuroleptics presumably cause theirs. Until pharmacological challenge has been extended to the cases discussed by Phillips, we can only speculate as to the role of dopamine in each of those cases. In the cases where pharmacological challenge has been examined, only nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex have been found to have dopamine-independent reward sites. It is not consistent with the dopamine hypothesis that dopamine-independent reward sites should exist in these areas, since any reward signals carried to nucleus accumbens or frontal cortex by dopamine fibers would-unless we are to believe that reward "happens" at these sites-have to be carried to the next stage of the circuit by nondopaminergic fibers (there are no dopaminergic cell bodies in any of the dopamine terminal areas).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

1,921 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Dopamine

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Glutamate receptor

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NMDA receptor

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Cholinergic

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Serotonergic

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021214
2020230
2019238
2018211
2017222

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Thomas C. Südhof

29 papers, 6.9K citations

Theodore A. Slotkin

22 papers, 1.2K citations

Frederic J. Seidler

20 papers, 1.2K citations

Paul Greengard

20 papers, 4.7K citations

Richard J. Wurtman

18 papers, 1.5K citations