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About: Nidovirales is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 196 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 28957 citation(s). more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41564-020-0695-Z
Abstract: The present outbreak of a coronavirus-associated acute respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the third documented spillover of an animal coronavirus to humans in only two decades that has resulted in a major epidemic. The Coronaviridae Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for developing the classification of viruses and taxon nomenclature of the family Coronaviridae, has assessed the placement of the human pathogen, tentatively named 2019-nCoV, within the Coronaviridae. Based on phylogeny, taxonomy and established practice, the CSG recognizes this virus as forming a sister clade to the prototype human and bat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and designates it as SARS-CoV-2. In order to facilitate communication, the CSG proposes to use the following naming convention for individual isolates: SARS-CoV-2/host/location/isolate/date. While the full spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans remains to be determined, the independent zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for studying viruses at the species level to complement research focused on individual pathogenic viruses of immediate significance. This will improve our understanding of virus–host interactions in an ever-changing environment and enhance our preparedness for future outbreaks. more

Topics: Coronavirus (64%), Nidovirales (50%)

3,790 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA030747
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently been identified as a new clinical entity. SARS is thought to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. METHODS: Clinical specimens from patients with SARS were searched for unknown viruses with the use of cell cultures and molecular techniques. RESULTS: A novel coronavirus was identified in patients with SARS. The virus was isolated in cell culture, and a sequence 300 nucleotides in length was obtained by a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based random-amplification procedure. Genetic characterization indicated that the virus is only distantly related to known coronaviruses (identical in 50 to 60 percent of the nucleotide sequence). On the basis of the obtained sequence, conventional and real-time PCR assays for specific and sensitive detection of the novel virus were established. Virus was detected in a variety of clinical specimens from patients with SARS but not in controls. High concentrations of viral RNA of up to 100 million molecules per milliliter were found in sputum. Viral RNA was also detected at extremely low concentrations in plasma during the acute phase and in feces during the late convalescent phase. Infected patients showed seroconversion on the Vero cells in which the virus was isolated. CONCLUSIONS: The novel coronavirus might have a role in causing SARS. more

Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (66%), Human coronavirus OC43 (62%) more

3,727 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA030781
Thomas G. Ksiazek1, Dean D. Erdman1, Cynthia S. Goldsmith1, Zaki1  +22 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: background A worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been associated with exposures originating from a single ill health care worker from Guangdong Province, China. We conducted studies to identify the etiologic agent of this outbreak. methods We received clinical specimens from patients in six countries and tested them, using virus isolation techniques, electron-microscopical and histologic studies, and molecular and serologic assays, in an attempt to identify a wide range of potential pathogens. results No classic respiratory or bacterial respiratory pathogen was consistently identified. However, a novel coronavirus was isolated from patients who met the case definition of SARS. Cytopathological features were noted microscopically in Vero E6 cells inoculated with a throat-swab specimen. Electron-microscopical examination of cultures revealed ultrastructural features characteristic of coronaviruses. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining revealed reactivity with group I coronavirus polyclonal antibodies. Consensus coronavirus primers designed to amplify a fragment of the polymerase gene by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to obtain a sequence that clearly identified the isolate as a unique coronavirus only distantly related to previously sequenced coronaviruses. With specific diagnostic RT-PCR primers we identified several identical nucleotide sequences in 12 patients from several locations, a finding consistent with a point source outbreak. Indirect fluorescent antibody tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays made with the new coronavirus isolate have been used to demonstrate a virus-specific serologic response. Preliminary studies suggest that this virus may never before have infected the U.S. population. conclusions A novel coronavirus is associated with this outbreak, and the evidence indicates that this virus has an etiologic role in SARS. The name Urbani SARS-associated coronavirus is proposed for the virus. more

Topics: Coronavirus (72%), Human coronavirus 229E (70%), Human coronavirus NL63 (66%) more

3,690 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1085953
30 May 2003-Science
Abstract: We sequenced the 29,751-base genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus known as the Tor2 isolate. The genome sequence reveals that this coronavirus is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses, including two human coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins indicates that the virus does not closely resemble any of the three previously known groups of coronaviruses. The genome sequence will aid in the diagnosis of SARS virus infection in humans and potential animal hosts (using polymerase chain reaction and immunological tests), in the development of antivirals (including neutralizing antibodies), and in the identification of putative epitopes for vaccine development. more

Topics: Coronavirus (71%), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (59%), Genome (53%) more

1,955 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
David Cavanagh1Institutions (1)
Topics: Torovirus (52%), Nidovirales (51%)

1,190 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Eric J. Snijder

10 papers, 2.1K citations

John Ziebuhr

9 papers, 5.5K citations

Alexander E. Gorbalenya

7 papers, 5.5K citations

Ralph S. Baric

7 papers, 680 citations

Peter J. M. Rottier

6 papers, 544 citations

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