About: Nitrile is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 17485 publications have been published within this topic receiving 226135 citations. The topic is also known as: nitriles & carbonitrile.
Papers published on a yearly basis
24 May 1984
TL;DR: The theory of 1-3-Dipolar Cycloadditions is discussed in this article. But it does not consider higher-order cycloaddings and higher order cycloreversions.
Abstract: Historical Note, General Principle and Mechanistic Criteria. Nitrile Ylides. Nitrile Oxides and Nitrile Imines. Diazoalkanes. Azides and Nitrous Oxide. Azomethine Ylides. Azomethine Imines. Mesoionic Ring Systems. Nitrones. Azimines, Azoxy Compounds and Nitro Compounds. Ozone and Carbonyl Oxides. Intramolecular Dipolar Cycloadditions. Theory of 1,3--Dipolar Cycloadditions. 1,3--Dipolar Cycloreversions. Higher Order Dipolar Cycloadditions.
TL;DR: In this paper, the cleavage and addition of ortho C−H bonds in various aromatic compounds such as ketones, esters, imines, imidates, nitrile, and aldehydes to olefins and acetlylenes can be achieved with the aid of ruthenium catalysts.
Abstract: The cleavage and addition of ortho C−H bonds in various aromatic compounds such as ketones, esters, imines, imidates, nitrile, and aldehydes to olefins and acetlylenes can be achieved catalytically with the aid of ruthenium catalysts. The reaction is generally highly efficient and useful in synthetic methods. The coordination to the metal center by a heteroatom in directing groups such as carbonyl and imino groups is the key. The reductive elimination to form a C−C bond is the rate-determining step.
TL;DR: This study suggests that, in this series of ligands, the nitrile functionality is critical to ERbeta selectivity because it provides the optimal combination of linear geometry and polarity.
Abstract: Through an effort to develop novel ligands that have subtype selectivity for the estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), we have found that 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionitrile (DPN) acts as an agonist on both ER subtypes, but has a 70-fold higher relative binding affinity and 170-fold higher relative potency in transcription assays with ERbeta than with ERalpha. To investigate the ERbeta affinity- and potency-selective character of this DPN further, we prepared a series of DPN analogues in which both the ligand core and the aromatic rings were modified by the repositioning of phenolic hydroxy groups and by the addition of alkyl substituents and nitrile groups. We also prepared other series of DPN analogues in which the nitrile functionality was replaced with acetylene groups or polar functions, to mimic the linear geometry or polarity of the nitrile, respectively. To varying degrees, all of the analogues show preferential binding affinity for ERbeta (i.e., they are ERbeta affinity-selective), and many, but not all of them, are also more potent in activating transcription through ERbeta than through ERalpha (i.e., they are ERbeta potency-selective). meso-2,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)succinonitrile and dl-2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)succinonitrile are among the highest ERbeta affinity-selective ligands, and they have an ERbeta potency selectivity that is equivalent to that of DPN. The acetylene analogues have higher binding affinities but somewhat lower selectivities than their nitrile counterparts. The polar analogues have lower affinities, and only the fluorinated polar analogues have substantial affinity selectivities. This study suggests that, in this series of ligands, the nitrile functionality is critical to ERbeta selectivity because it provides the optimal combination of linear geometry and polarity. Furthermore, the addition of a second nitrile group beta to the nitrile in DPN or the addition of a methyl substitutent at an ortho position on the beta-aromatic ring increases the affinity and selectivity of these compounds for ERbeta. These ERbeta-selective compounds may prove to be valuable tools in understanding the differences in structure and biological function of ERalpha and ERbeta.
TL;DR: In this paper, a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) mixed with Co(II) or Fe(2) salts and high-area carbon and then heat treated, has been found to yield very promising catalysts for O2 reduction in concentrated alkaline and acid solutions.
Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), mixed with Co(II) or Fe(II) salts and high-area carbon and then heat treated, has been found to yield very promising catalysts for O2 reduction in concentrated alkaline and acid solutions. The catalytic activities are comparable to those for the heat-treated corresponding transition metal macrocycles and polypyrrole black-based catalysts. The addition of the transition metal to the nitrogen-containing polymer, either before or after the heat treatment with carbon, is an important factor for good activity. The nitrile nitrogen of the PAN is probably retained and converted to pyridyl nitrogen during the heat treatment, and this nitrogen is believed to provide binding sites for the transition metal ions, which then act as catalytic sites for oxygen reduction to peroxide and its decomposition.
TL;DR: Another remarkable feature of these crystalline Cu(I) triazolates is their simple, typical 3- or 4-connected network topologies.
Abstract: One-pot solvothermal treatments of organonitriles, ammonia, and Cu(II) salts yielded Cu(I) and 3,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazolates. The organic triazolate components were derived from copper-mediated oxidative cycloaddition of nitriles and ammonia, in which a key intermediate 1,3,5-triazapentadienate was isolated as [Cu(II)(4-pytap)(2)] (4-Hpytap = 2,4-di(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazapentadiene) via controlled solvothermal conditions. This intermediate could also be synthesized by Ni(II)-mediated reactions; however, the final triazoles were obtained only when Cu(II) was employed. Therefore, the reaction mechanism of these reactions was elucidated as follows: nitrile was first attacked by ammonia to form the amidine, which further reacted with another nitrile or self-condensed to yield 1,3,5-triazapentadiene, which was coordinated to two Cu(II) ions in its deprotonated form. A two-electron oxidation of the 1,3,5-triazapentadienate mediated by two Cu(II) ions gave one triazolate and Cu(I) cations. Other in situ ligand reactions, such as C-C bond cleavage and hydrolysis, were also found for the nitriles under these solvothermal conditions. Another remarkable feature of these crystalline Cu(I) triazolates is their simple, typical 3- or 4-connected network topologies. The self-assembly of these nets is presumably controlled by steric hindrance, which is subsequently applied to the rational design of the close-packed 2D networks [Cu(I)(tz)](infinity) and [Ag(I)(tz)](infinity) (Htz = 1,2,4-triazole), as well as the porous 3D network [Cu(I)(etz)](infinity) (Hetz = 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-triazole). The interesting photoluminescence properties of these coinage d(10) metal complexes were also investigated.
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