About: Nitrophenol is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1380 publications have been published within this topic receiving 30521 citations. The topic is also known as: nitrophenols & mononitrophenol.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a study on the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride in the presence of metal nanoparticles is presented, where the nanoparticles are embedded in spherical polyelectrolyte brushes.
Abstract: We present a study on the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride in the presence of metal nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are embedded in spherical polyelectrolyte brushes, which consist of a polystyrene core onto which a dense layer of cationic polyelectrolyte brushes are grafted. The average size of the nanoparticles is approximately 2 nm. The kinetic data obtained by monitoring the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by UV/vis-spectroscopy could be explained in terms of the Langmuir−Hinshelwood model: The borohydride ions transfer a surface-hydrogen species in a reversible manner to the surface. Concomitantly 4-nitrophenol is adsorbed and the rate-determining step consists of the reduction of nitrophenol by the surface-hydrogen species. The apparent reaction rate can therefore be related to the total surface S of the nanoparticles, to the kinetic constant k related to the rate-determining step, and to the adsorption constants KNip and KBH4 of nitrophenol and of borohydride, respectively. In...
TL;DR: A novel catalyst based on Fe@Au bimetallic nanoparticles involved graphene oxide was prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the nanomaterial was used in catalytic reductions of 4-nitrophenol and 2-nitophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride.
Abstract: In this study, a novel catalyst based on Fe@Au bimetallic nanoparticles involved graphene oxide was prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanomaterial was used in catalytic reductions of 4-nitrophenol and 2-nitrophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The experimental parameters such as temperature, the dosage of catalyst and the concentration of sodium borohydride were studied. The rates of catalytic reduction of the nitrophenol compounds have been found as the sequence: 4-nitrophenol>2-nitrophenol. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of nitrophenol compounds were determined. Activation energies were found as 2.33 kcal mol(-1) and 3.16 kcal mol(-1) for 4-nitrophenol and 2-nitrophenol, respectively. The nanomaterial was separated from the product by using a magnet and recycled after the reduction of nitrophenol compounds. The recyclable of the nanocatalyst is economically significant in industry.
TL;DR: An indirect electrochemical method, which is very efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, is described in this paper, which is based on electrocatalytical generation of Fenton's reagent to produce hydroxyl radicals, which are very active toward organic compounds.
Abstract: An indirect electrochemical method, which is very efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, is described. The method, named electro-Fenton, is based on electrocatalytical generation of Fenton's reagent to produce hydroxyl radicals, which are very active toward organic compounds. An industrial pollutant, p-nitrophenol (PNP), was chosen for this study and was eventually mineralized. The major intermediary degradation products such as hydroquinone, benzoquinone, 4-nitrocatechol, 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene and 3,4,5-trihydroxy- nitrobenzene were unequivocally identified by HPLC and GC-MS methods. The rate constants of the hydroxylation reactions were determined. The mineralization of the initial pollutant and the intermediates formed during electro-Fenton treatment was followed by total organic carbon (TOC) analyses. Dependence of mineralization on the amount of electrical energy consumed is shown by the relative decrease of TOC values. A mineralization reaction mechanism is proposed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed the dumbbell-and flower-like Au−Fe3O4 heterostructures by thermal decomposition of the iron−oleate complex in the presence of Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully fabricated using different sizes of Au NPs as the seeds for magnetically recyclable catalysis of p-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophensol reduction.
Abstract: The dumbbell- and flower-like Au−Fe3O4 heterostructures by thermal decomposition of the iron−oleate complex in the presence of Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully fabricated using different sizes of Au NPs as the seeds for magnetically recyclable catalysis of p-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol reduction. The heterostructures exhibit bifunctional properties with high magnetization and excellent catalytic activity toward nitrophenol reduction. The epitaxial linkages in dumbbell- and flower-like heterostructures are different, leading to the change in magnetic and catalytic properties of the heterostructured nanocatalysts. The pseudo-first-order rate constants for nitrophenol reduction are 0.63−0.72 min−1 and 0.38−0.46 min−1 for dumbbell- and flower-like Au−Fe3O4 heterostructures, respectively. In addition, the heterostructured nanocatalysts show good separation ability and reusability which can be repeatedly applied for nearly complete reduction of nitrophenols for at least six successive cycles....
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the data concerning the atmospheric occurrence of nitrophenols, both in the gas and in the condensed phase (rainwater, cloud, fog and snow).
Abstract: This paper reviews the data concerning the atmospheric occurrence of nitrophenols, both in the gas and in the condensed phase (rainwater, cloud, fog and snow). Data obtained from field campaigns are reported, together with a description of the analytical techniques employed for the identification and quantification of nitrophenols. Analysis is usually performed using techniques such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), with the sampling method largely determined according to the matrix under investigation. The sources of atmospheric nitrophenols include direct emissions resulting from combustion processes, hydrolysis of pesticides (e.g. parathion) and the secondary formation of nitrophenols in the atmosphere. Atmospheric nitration of phenol can take place both in the gas and liquid phases, but the relative importance of these processes is still under discussion. The gas-phase nitration involves reaction between phenol and OH+ NO 2 during the day or NO 3 + NO 2 during the night. Gas-phase nitration during the day yields only 2-nitrophenol (2-NP); while during the night it is thought that both 2-NP and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) may be formed. Because of many gaps in the experimental evidence it is apparent that more research is required to indicate whether the 4-NP present in the environment can be accounted for by this nighttime process. Nitration in the condensed phase can be initiated by electrophilic nitration agents such as N 2 O 5 and ClNO 2 . Other liquid-phase processes can also take place, in the presence of NO 3 , nitrate and nitrite, in the dark and under irradiation. Condensed-phase processes have been shown to yield 2- and 4-NP in similar amounts. It is also important to consider the atmospheric sinks of nitrophenols. The rate constant for the reaction between 2-NP and OH in the gas phase is rather low (9.0×10 −13 cm 3 molecule −1 s −1 ), while incomplete data are available for the reaction with NO 3 . In addition, condensed-phase processes might also represent an important nitrophenol sink. Potential loss routes include the reaction with radicals such as OH and NO 3 in aqueous solution as well as the nitration to form the dinitrophenols.