Topic

# Noise

About: Noise is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 110441 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1309581 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Мопсы танцуют под радио бандитов из сталкера 10 часов.

##### Papers

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Abstract: A constrained optimization type of numerical algorithm for removing noise from images is presented. The total variation of the image is minimized subject to constraints involving the statistics of the noise. The constraints are imposed using Lagrange multipliers. The solution is obtained using the gradient-projection method. This amounts to solving a time dependent partial differential equation on a manifold determined by the constraints. As t---~ 0o the solution converges to a steady state which is the denoised image. The numerical algorithm is simple and relatively fast. The results appear to be state-of-the-art for very noisy images. The method is noninvasive, yielding sharp edges in the image. The technique could be interpreted as a first step of moving each level set of the image normal to itself with velocity equal to the curvature of the level set divided by the magnitude of the gradient of the image, and a second step which projects the image back onto the constraint set.

13,575 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}01 Jan 1949-

TL;DR: A method is developed for representing any communication system geometrically and a number of results in communication theory are deduced concerning expansion and compression of bandwidth and the threshold effect.

Abstract: A method is developed for representing any communication system geometrically Messages and the corresponding signals are points in two "function spaces," and the modulation process is a mapping of one space into the other Using this representation, a number of results in communication theory are deduced concerning expansion and compression of bandwidth and the threshold effect Formulas are found for the maximum rate of transmission of binary digits over a system when the signal is perturbed by various types of noise Some of the properties of "ideal" systems which transmit at this maximum rate are discussed The equivalent number of binary digits per second for certain information sources is calculated

6,364 citations

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Abstract: In this section we use the representations of the noise currents given in section 2.8 to derive some statistical properties of I(t). The first six sections are concerned with the probability distribution of I(t) and of its zeros and maxima. Sections 3.7 and 3.8 are concerned with the statistical properties of the envelope of I(t). Fluctuations of integrals involving I2(t) are discussed in section 3.9. The probability distribution of a sine wave plus a noise current is given in 3.10 and in 3.11 an alternative method of deriving the results of Part III is mentioned. Prof. Uhlenbeck has pointed out that much of the material in this Part is closely connected with the theory of Markoff processes. Also S. Chandrasekhar has written a review of a class of physical problems which is related, in a general way, to the present subject.22

5,541 citations

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TL;DR: A stand-alone noise suppression algorithm that resynthesizes a speech waveform and can be used as a pre-processor to narrow-band voice communications systems, speech recognition systems, or speaker authentication systems.

Abstract: A stand-alone noise suppression algorithm is presented for reducing the spectral effects of acoustically added noise in speech. Effective performance of digital speech processors operating in practical environments may require suppression of noise from the digital wave-form. Spectral subtraction offers a computationally efficient, processor-independent approach to effective digital speech analysis. The method, requiring about the same computation as high-speed convolution, suppresses stationary noise from speech by subtracting the spectral noise bias calculated during nonspeech activity. Secondary procedures are then applied to attenuate the residual noise left after subtraction. Since the algorithm resynthesizes a speech waveform, it can be used as a pre-processor to narrow-band voice communications systems, speech recognition systems, or speaker authentication systems.

4,550 citations

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04 Mar 2006-

Abstract: We continue a line of research initiated in [10,11]on privacy-preserving statistical databases. Consider a trusted server that holds a database of sensitive information. Given a query function f mapping databases to reals, the so-called true answer is the result of applying f to the database. To protect privacy, the true answer is perturbed by the addition of random noise generated according to a carefully chosen distribution, and this response, the true answer plus noise, is returned to the user.
Previous work focused on the case of noisy sums, in which f = ∑ig(xi), where xi denotes the ith row of the database and g maps database rows to [0,1]. We extend the study to general functions f, proving that privacy can be preserved by calibrating the standard deviation of the noise according to the sensitivity of the function f. Roughly speaking, this is the amount that any single argument to f can change its output. The new analysis shows that for several particular applications substantially less noise is needed than was previously understood to be the case.
The first step is a very clean characterization of privacy in terms of indistinguishability of transcripts. Additionally, we obtain separation results showing the increased value of interactive sanitization mechanisms over non-interactive.

4,537 citations