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Noise (electronics)

About: Noise (electronics) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 42029 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 622342 citation(s). The topic is also known as: measurement noise.

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Journal ArticleDOI
N. R. Lomb1
Abstract: The statistical properties of least-squares frequency analysis of unequally spaced data are examined. It is shown that, in the least-squares spectrum of gaussian noise, the reduction in the sum of squares at a particular frequency is aX22 variable. The reductions at different frequencies are not independent, as there is a correlation between the height of the spectrum at any two frequencies,f1 andf2, which is equal to the mean height of the spectrum due to a sinusoidal signal of frequencyf1, at the frequencyf2. These correlations reduce the distortion in the spectrum of a signal affected by noise. Some numerical illustrations of the properties of least-squares frequency spectra are also given.

4,365 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A maximum likelihood (ML) estimator is developed for determining time delay between signals received at two spatially separated sensors in the presence of uncorrelated noise. This ML estimator can be realized as a pair of receiver prefilters followed by a cross correlator. The time argument at which the correlator achieves a maximum is the delay estimate. The ML estimator is compared with several other proposed processors of similar form. Under certain conditions the ML estimator is shown to be identical to one proposed by Hannan and Thomson [10] and MacDonald and Schultheiss [21]. Qualitatively, the role of the prefilters is to accentuate the signal passed to the correlator at frequencies for which the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is highest and, simultaneously, to suppress the noise power. The same type of prefiltering is provided by the generalized Eckart filter, which maximizes the S/N ratio of the correlator output. For low S/N ratio, the ML estimator is shown to be equivalent to Eckart prefiltering.

4,009 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The interferometers now being developed to detect gravitational waves work by measuring the relative positions of widely separated masses. Two fundamental sources of quantum-mechanical noise determine the sensitivity of such an interferometer: (i) fluctuations in number of output photons (photon-counting error) and (ii) fluctuations in radiation pressure on the masses (radiation-pressure error). Because of the low power of available continuous-wave lasers, the sensitivity of currently planned interferometers will be limited by photon-counting error. This paper presents an analysis of the two types of quantum-mechanical noise, and it proposes a new technique---the "squeezed-state" technique---that allows one to decrease the photon-counting error while increasing the radiation-pressure error, or vice versa. The key requirement of the squeezed-state technique is that the state of the light entering the interferometer's normally unused input port must be not the vacuum, as in a standard interferometer, but rather a "squeezed state"---a state whose uncertainties in the two quadrature phases are unequal. Squeezed states can be generated by a variety of nonlinear optical processes, including degenerate parametric amplification.

2,255 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this contribution the transmission of M-PSK and M-QAM modulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered and the degradation of the bit error rate is evaluated.
Abstract: In this contribution the transmission of M-PSK and M-QAM modulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered. The degradation of the bit error rate (BER), caused by the presence of carrier frequency offset and carrier phase noise is analytically evaluated. It is shown that for a given BER degradation, the values of the frequency offset and the linewidth of the carrier generator that are allowed for OFDM are orders of magnitude smaller than for single carrier systems carrying the same bit rate. >

1,796 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1996
Abstract: In linear IC's fabricated in a low-voltage CMOS technology, the reduction of the dynamic range due to the dc offset and low frequency noise of the amplifiers becomes increasingly significant. Also, the achievable amplifier gain is often quite low in such a technology, since cascoding may not be a practical circuit option due to the resulting reduction of the output signal swing. In this paper, some old and some new circuit techniques are described for the compensation of the amplifier's most important nonideal effects including the noise (mainly thermal and 1/f noise), the input-referred dc offset voltage as well as the finite gain resulting in a nonideal virtual ground at the input.

1,765 citations

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