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Norepinephrine (medication)

About: Norepinephrine (medication) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12189 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 371139 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Norepinephrine bitartrate & Norepinephrine (drug).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is revealed that norepinephrine and dopamine are specifically localized in complex systems of neurons in the brain, a finding which lends support to the hypothesis that both amines may be neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.
Abstract: NOREPINEPHRINE is found in appreciable amounts in mammalian brain tissue. VOGT (1954) showed that this amine was unequally distributed in various regions of the cat brain, the highest concentrations being found in the hypothalamus. Similar findings were reported for other animal species (BERTLER and ROSENGREN, 1959a; MCGEER, MCGEER and WADA, 1963) and man (SANO, GAMO, KAKIMOTO, TANAGUCHI, TAKE~ADA and NISHINUMA, 1959). Dopamine is also present in the brain in comparable amounts to norepinephrine (MONTAGU, 1957 ; CARLSSON, LINDQVIST, MAGNUSSON and WALDECK, 1958) but with a different regional distribution, the highest concentrations being in the corpus striatum of both animals and man (BERTLER and ROSENGREN, 1959a; SANO et al., 1959; EHRINGER and HORNYKIEWICZ, 1960; BERTLER, 1961). The anatomical distribution of these two catecholamines in the brain was confirmed by the use of fluorescent histochemical techniques which allow a precise description of the cellular localization of the amines in brain tissue (CARLSSON, FALK and HILLARP, 1962; DAHLSTROM and FUXE, 1964; FUXE, 1965). These techniques revealed that norepinephrine and dopamine are specifically localized in complex systems of neurons in the brain, a finding which lends support to the hypothesis that both amines may be neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. The metabolism of catecholamines in the rat brain was studied by introducing small amounts of radioactive norepinephrine or dopamine directly into the lateral ventricle (MILHAUD and GLOWINSKI, 1962, 1963; GLOWINSKI, KOPIN and AXELROD, 1965; GLOWINSKI, IVERSEN and AXELROD, 1966). By this approach the blood-brain barrier to catecholamines can be circumvented, penetration of the radioactive catecholamines into the brain being allowed. The disposition of PHInorepinephrine in the whole brain indicates that [3H]norepinephrine introduced into the lateral ventricle of the brain mixes with the endogenous amine and can be used as a tracer to study the biochemical behaviour of norepinephrine in the brain (GLOWINSKI and AXELROD, 1966). PHIDopamine, which is also taken up and retained in the brain, is rapidly metabolized and converted to norepinephrine (GLOWINSKI et a!., 1966). The unequal regional distribution of the endogeneous catecholamines in the brain led us to undertake a study of the disposition of radioactive norepinephrine and dopamine in various brain regions after intraventricular injection. The regional

5,358 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Measurements of Hemodynamics, plasma norepinephrine, and plasma renin activity in patients with moderate to severe congestive heart failure suggest that a single resting venous blood sample showing the plasma norenphrine concentration provides a better guide to prognosis than other commonly measured indexes of cardiac performance.
Abstract: Hemodynamics, plasma norepinephrine, and plasma renin activity were measured at supine rest in 106 patients (83 men and 23 women) with moderate to severe congestive heart failure. During follow-up lasting 1 to 62 months, 60 patients died (57 per cent); 47 per cent of the deaths were sudden, and 45 per cent were related to progressive heart failure. Statistically unrelated to the risk of mortality were cause of disease (60 patients had coronary disease, and 46 had cardiomyopathy), age (mean, 54.8 years), cardiac index (mean, 2.11 liters per minute per square meter of body-surface area), pulmonary wedge pressure (mean, 24.5 mm Hg), and mean arterial pressure (mean, 83.2 mm Hg). A multivariate analysis of the five significant univariate prognosticators--heart rate (mean, 84.4 beats per minute), plasma renin activity (mean, 15.4 ng per milliliter per hour), plasma norepinephrine (mean, 700 pg per milliliter), serum sodium (mean, 135.7 mmol per liter), and stroke-work index (mean, 21.0 g-meters per square meter)--found only plasma norepinephrine to be independently (P = 0.002) related to the subsequent risk of mortality. Norepinephrine was also higher in patients who died from progressive heart failure than in those who died suddenly. These data suggest that a single resting venous blood sample showing the plasma norepinephrine concentration provides a better guide to prognosis than other commonly measured indexes of cardiac performance.

2,993 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1977-Life Sciences
TL;DR: Modification of the original single isotope radioenzymatic assay of Passon and Peuler permits the direct and simultaneous analysis of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine in plasma samples of 50 μl or less.
Abstract: Modification of the original single isotope radioenzymatic assay of Passon and Peuler (1) permits the direct and simultaneous analysis of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine in plasma samples of 50 μl or less. Plasma or cerebrospinal fluid without prior extraction of catecholamines or deproteinization is added directly into a mixture of 100 μl. This catechol-O-methyl-transferase-catalyzed assay is sensitive to 1 pg (20 pg/ml of plasma) for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 6 pg (120 pg/ml) for dopamine. A rapid thin layer chromatographic separation of the three 3H-methylcatecholamines contributes to the excellent specificity of the differential assay of the three catecholamines. The differential analysis of 15–20 plasma samples can be completed easily within one day. A total assay which omits the chromatographic step and, thus, measures norepinephrine plus epinephrine at the same sensitivity can be completed in 20 samples in one-half a working day.

2,027 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although there was no significant difference in the rate of death between patients with shock who were treated with dopamine as the first-line vasopressor agent and those who were treating with norepinephrine, the use of dopamine was associated with a greater number of adverse events.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Both dopamine and norepinephrine are recommended as first-line vasopressor agents in the treatment of shock. There is a continuing controversy about whether one agent is superior to the other. METHODS In this multicenter, randomized trial, we assigned patients with shock to receive either dopamine or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor therapy to restore and maintain blood pressure. When blood pressure could not be maintained with a dose of 20 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for dopamine or a dose of 0.19 μg per kilogram per minute for norepinephrine, open-label norepinephrine, epinephrine, or vasopressin could be added. The primary outcome was the rate of death at 28 days after randomization; secondary end points included the number of days without need for organ support and the occurrence of adverse events. RESULTS The trial included 1679 patients, of whom 858 were assigned to dopamine and 821 to norepinephrine. The baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of death at 28 days (52.5% in the dopamine group and 48.5% in the norepinephrine group; odds ratio with dopamine, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.42; P = 0.10). However, there were more arrhythmic events among the patients treated with dopamine than among those treated with norepinephrine (207 events [24.1%] vs. 102 events [12.4%], P<0.001). A subgroup analysis showed that dopamine, as compared with norepinephrine, was associated with an increased rate of death at 28 days among the 280 patients with cardiogenic shock but not among the 1044 patients with septic shock or the 263 with hypovolemic shock (P = 0.03 for cardiogenic shock, P = 0.19 for septic shock, and P = 0.84 for hypovolemic shock, in Kaplan–Meier analyses). CONCLUSIONS Although there was no significant difference in the rate of death between patients with shock who were treated with dopamine as the first-line vasopressor agent and those who were treated with norepinephrine, the use of dopamine was associated with a greater number of adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00314704.)

1,236 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021134
2020116
2019118
2018103
201799

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Irwin J. Kopin

90 papers, 4.9K citations

Julius Axelrod

40 papers, 4.5K citations

David S. Goldstein

33 papers, 2K citations

Michael G. Ziegler

32 papers, 1.5K citations

Yoshiaki Masuyama

30 papers, 197 citations