scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Noun phrase

About: Noun phrase is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6164 publications have been published within this topic receiving 156419 citations. The topic is also known as: NP & nominal phrase.

More filters
Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 May 2003
TL;DR: The empirical results suggest that the highest levels of performance can be obtained through relatively simple means: heuristic learning of phrase translations from word-based alignments and lexical weighting of phrase translation.
Abstract: We propose a new phrase-based translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrase-based translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrase-based models out-perform word-based models. Our empirical results, which hold for all examined language pairs, suggest that the highest levels of performance can be obtained through relatively simple means: heuristic learning of phrase translations from word-based alignments and lexical weighting of phrase translations. Surprisingly, learning phrases longer than three words and learning phrases from high-accuracy word-level alignment models does not have a strong impact on performance. Learning only syntactically motivated phrases degrades the performance of our systems.

3,778 citations

20 Apr 1989
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the structural complexity of Mandarin as an isolating language and propose a rule-based approach to construct a rule based on the structure of the word order in Mandarin.
Abstract: Preface to the Paperback Edition Preface Conventiom Used in Examples Abbreviations 1 Introduction l. l The Chinese Language Family 1.2 The Phonology of Mandarin 1.2.1 Initials 1.2.2 Finals 1.2.3 Tones 1.2.4 Phonetic Effects of the Retroflex Suffix 2 Typological Description 2.1 The Structural Complexity of Words: Mandarin as an Isolating Language 2.1.1 Morphemes Occurring with Nouns 2. l. 2 Morphemes Occurring with Verbs 2.2 Monosyllabicity: The Number of Syllables per Word 2.3 Topic Prominence 2.4 Word Order 2.4.1 The Word Order Typology 2.4.2 Word Order in Mandarin 3 Word Structure 3.1 Morphological Processes 3. 1. 1 Reduplication 3.1.2 Affixation 3.2 Compounds 3.2.1 The Meaning of Compounds 3.2.2 Nominal Compounds 3.2.3 Verbal Compounds 3.2.4 Subject-Predicate Compounds 3.2.5 Verb-Object Compounds 3.2.6 Antonymous Adjectives Forming Nominal Compounds 3.2.7 Minor Types of Compounds 4 Simple Declarative Sentences 4.1 Topic and Subject 4.1.1 Characterization of Topic 4.1.2 Characterization of Subject 4.1.3 Comparison of Topic and Subject 4.1.4 Double-Subject Sentences 4.1.5 Comparison with Chao's Analysis 4.1.6 Time and Locative Phrases 4.1.7 Further Examples 4.1.8 Topic as a Discourse Element 4.1. 9 Topic and Coreference in Discourse 4.2 The Noun Phrase 4.2.1 Classifier Phrases/Measure Phrases 4.2.2 Associative Phrases 4.2.3 Modifying Phrases 4.2.4 The Order of Elements in a Noun Phrase 4.2.5 Definiteness and Referentiality 4.2.6 Pronouns 4.2.7 Reflexives 4. 3 The Verb Phrase 4.3.1 Types of Verb Phrases 5 Auxiliary Verbs 5.1 Auxiliary Verb versus Verb 5.2 Auxiliary Verb versus Adverb 5.3 List of Auxiliary Verbs 6 Aspect 6.1 The Perfective Aspect 6.1.1 Where to Use -le: A Bounded Event 6.1.2 Where Not to Use -le 6.1.3 -le in Imperatives 6.1.4 -le Does Not Mean Past Tense 6.1.5 -le Does Not Mean Completion 6.1.6 Summary 6.2 The Durative Aspect 6.2.1 Semantic Types of Verbs and the Durative Aspect Markers -me and zai 6.2.2 Complex Sentences with the Durative Aspect Marker -zhe 6.3 The Experiential Aspect 6.4 The Delimitative Aspect 6.5 Summary 7 Sentence-Final Particles 7.1 le 7. 1. 1 The Communicative Function of le 7 .1.2 Where Not to Use le 7. l. 3 Perfective -le versus CRS le 7.2 ne 7.3 ba 7.4 ou 7.5 a/ya 7.6 Conclusion 8 Adverbs 8. 1 Movable Adverbs 8.1.1 Movable Adverbs of Time 8. l. 2 Movable Adverbs of Attitude 8.2 Nonmovable Adverbs 8.2.1 Manner Adverbs 8.2.2 Nonmanner Adverbs 8.3 Negation and Adverbs 8.3.1 Negation and Movable Adverbs 8.3.2 Negation and Nonmovable Adverbs 8.4 Adverbs and the bii Construction 8.5 Quantity Adverbial Phrases 9 Coverbs/Prepositions 9. l The Function of Coverbs 9. l. 1 Occurrence with Aspect Markers 9.1.2 Coverbs That Can Function as Verbs 9. 2 Representative List of Co verbs 10 Indirect Objects and Benefactives 10. 1 gei Obligatory 10.2 gei Optional 10.3 gei Forbidden 10.4 Apparent Indirect Objects 10.5 Explanation for the Indirect Object Facts 10.6 Benefactive Noun Phrases, and Preverbal Indirect Object 10.7 Other Functions of gei 11 Locative and Directional Phrases 11. l Locative Phrases 11. l. l The Structure of Locative Phrases 11.1.2 The Position of the Locative Phrase in the Sentence 11.2 Directional Phrases with dao 'to' 12 Negation 12.1 The Position and Scope of Negative Particles 12.2 The Functions of bu and mei(you) 12.2. 1 Variation in the Meaning of Sentences with bu 12.2.2 Types of Verb Phrases 12.2.3 Resultative Verb Compounds 12.3 mei(you) Is Not a Past Tense Negative Particle 12.4 Negation and Aspect 12.5 Negating Some Element other than a Simple Verb Phrase 12.6 Summary 13 Verb Copying 13.1 Where Verb Copying Occurs 13.2 Grammatical Properties of the Verb-Copying Construction 14 The Imperative 15 The bii Construction 15.1 The bd Noun Phrase 15.2 Disposal 15.3 bii Sentences without a Subject 15.4 bii . .. gei 15.5 When to Use the bii Construction 16 The bei Construction 16.1 Use and Function 16.1.1 Adversity 16. l. 2 Disposal 16.2 Structural Properties 16.2.1 Indirect Object Adversely Affected 16.2.2 The bei Noun Phrase Can Be Inanimate 16.3 bii and bei 16.4 Variant Forms 17 Presentative Sentences 17.1 Existential and Positional Verbs 17.2 Verbs of Motion 18 Questions 18.1 The Four Types of Questions 18.2 Question-Word Questions 18.2. 1 Question Words in Questions 18.2.2 Question Words as Indefinite Pronouns 18.3 Disjunctive Questions 18.3. I Questions with Constituents Connected by haishi 18.3.2 A-not-A Questions 18.4 Tag Questions 18.5 Particle Questions 18.6 Differences between A-Not-A Questions and Particle Questions 18.7 Questions Serving as Subjects or Direct Objects of a Verb 18.8 Answers to Questions 19 Comparison 19.1 Comparative Constructions 19.1.1 Dimension 19.1.2 Subject/Topic and the Standard of Comparison 19.2 Superlatives 20 Nominalization 20.1 A Nominalization Functioning as a Noun Phrase 20.2 Nominalizations Modifying a Head Noun 20.2.1 Relative Clause Constructions 20.2.2 A Nominalization Serving as the Complement to an Abstract Head Noun 20.3 The shi . . . de Construction 21 Serial Verb Constructions 21. I Two or More Separate Events 21.2 One Verb Phrase/Clause Is the Subject or Direct Object of Another 21.2. I The Second Verb Phrase/Clause Is the Direct Object 21.2.2 The First Verb Phrase/Clause Is the Subject of the Second Verb 21.2.3 The Clause That Is a Subject or Direct Object is a Question 21.3 Pivotal Constructions 21.4 Descriptive Clauses 21.4.1 Realis Descriptive Clauses 21.4.2 lrrealis Descriptive Clauses 21.5 Summary 22 The Complex Stative Construction 22. I Inferred meanings 22. I . I Manner Inferred 22.1.2 Extent Inferred 22. I. 3 Either Manner or Extent Inferred 22.2 General Structural Properties 23 Sentence Linking 23. I Forward Linking 23. I. I Forward Linking with a Linking Element 23. I. 2 Forward Linking without a Linking Element 23. I. 3 The Semantics of Conditionals 23.2 Backward Linking 23.2.1 Adverbial Backward-Linking Elements in Clause-Initial Position 23.2.2 Nonmovable Adverbs as BackwardLinking Elements 24 Pronouns in Discourse 24.1 Zero Pronouns 24.2 Pronouns 24.3 Syntactic Constraints on Zero Pronouns References Index

2,458 citations

01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1987 as mentioned in this paper, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, USA.
Abstract: Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1987.

2,130 citations

01 Jan 1982

1,982 citations

Network Information
Related Topics (5)
33.8K papers, 767.6K citations
89% related
Natural language
31.1K papers, 806.8K citations
87% related
Machine translation
22.1K papers, 574.4K citations
86% related
41.2K papers, 929.6K citations
86% related
44.6K papers, 941.5K citations
85% related
No. of papers in the topic in previous years