About: NS5B is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1314 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 59534 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This work defines the structure of HCV replicons functional in cell culture and provides the basis for a long-sought cellular system that should allow detailed molecular studies ofHCV and the development of antiviral drugs.
Abstract: An estimated 170 million persons worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic liver disease. Despite increasing knowledge of genome structure and individual viral proteins, studies on virus replication and pathogenesis have been hampered by the lack of reliable and efficient cell culture systems. A full-length consensus genome was cloned from viral RNA isolated from an infected human liver and used to construct subgenomic selectable replicons. Upon transfection into a human hepatoma cell line, these RNAs were found to replicate to high levels, permitting metabolic radiolabeling of viral RNA and proteins. This work defines the structure of HCV replicons functional in cell culture and provides the basis for a long-sought cellular system that should allow detailed molecular studies of HCV and the development of antiviral drugs.
01 Mar 1993-Journal of Virology
TL;DR: The data indicate that at least nine polypeptides are produced by cleavage of the HCV H strain polyprotein, and preliminary results suggest that a fraction of E1 is associated with E2 and E2-NS2 via disulfide linkages.
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of transfusion-acquired non-A, non-B hepatitis. HCV is an enveloped positive-sense RNA virus which has been classified as a new genus in the flavivirus family. Like the other two genera in this family, the flaviviruses and the pestiviruses, HCV polypeptides appear to be produced by translation of a long open reading frame and subsequent proteolytic processing of this polyprotein. In this study, a cDNA clone encompassing the long open reading frame of the HCV H strain (3,011 amino acid residues) has been assembled and sequenced. This clone and various truncated derivatives were used in vaccinia virus transient-expression assays to map HCV-encoded polypeptides and to study HCV polyprotein processing. HCV polyproteins and cleavage products were identified by using convalescent human sera and a panel of region-specific polyclonal rabbit antisera. Similar results were obtained for several mammalian cell lines examined, including the human HepG2 hepatoma line. The data indicate that at least nine polypeptides are produced by cleavage of the HCV H strain polyprotein. Putative structural proteins, located in the N-terminal one-fourth of the polyprotein, include the capsid protein C (21 kDa) followed by two possible virion envelope proteins, E1 (31 kDa) and E2 (70 kDa), which are heavily modified by N-linked glycosylation. The remainder of the polyprotein probably encodes nonstructural proteins including NS2 (23 kDa), NS3 (70 kDa), NS4A (8 kDa), NS4B (27 kDa), NS5A (58 kDa), and NS5B (68 kDa). An 82- to 88-kDa glycoprotein which reacted with both E2 and NS2-specific HCV antisera was also identified (called E2-NS2). Preliminary results suggest that a fraction of E1 is associated with E2 and E2-NS2 via disulfide linkages.
TL;DR: These results provide the first clinical validation of an inhibitor of HCV NS5A, a protein with no known enzymatic function, as an approach to the suppression of virus replication that offers potential as part of a therapeutic regimen based on combinations ofHCV inhibitors.
Abstract: The worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is estimated to be approaching 200 million people. Current therapy relies upon a combination of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin, a poorly tolerated regimen typically associated with less than 50% sustained virological response rate in those infected with genotype 1 virus. The development of direct-acting antiviral agents to treat HCV has focused predominantly on inhibitors of the viral enzymes NS3 protease and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B. Here we describe the profile of BMS-790052, a small molecule inhibitor of the HCV NS5A protein that exhibits picomolar half-maximum effective concentrations (EC(50)) towards replicons expressing a broad range of HCV genotypes and the JFH-1 genotype 2a infectious virus in cell culture. In a phase I clinical trial in patients chronically infected with HCV, administration of a single 100-mg dose of BMS-790052 was associated with a 3.3 log(10) reduction in mean viral load measured 24 h post-dose that was sustained for an additional 120 h in two patients infected with genotype 1b virus. Genotypic analysis of samples taken at baseline, 24 and 144 h post-dose revealed that the major HCV variants observed had substitutions at amino-acid positions identified using the in vitro replicon system. These results provide the first clinical validation of an inhibitor of HCV NS5A, a protein with no known enzymatic function, as an approach to the suppression of virus replication that offers potential as part of a therapeutic regimen based on combinations of HCV inhibitors.
01 Feb 1995-Seminars in Liver Disease
TL;DR: It is revealed that HCV exists as multiple, distinct genotypes, and phylogenetic analyses of complete and partial nucleotide sequences from isolates that represent all published variants of HCV revealed that the genetic relatedness among some of the genotypes was not equivalent in the different gene regions.
Abstract: Worldwide, HCV is a major etiologic agent of chronic hepatitis that may lead to the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, significant morbidity and mortality is caused by HCV infection and effective control measures against the spread of this virus are needed. Originally, the extent of genetic heterogeneity of HCV was not fully appreciated. However, the breadth of the genetic heterogeneity of HCV is great, and this may have important implications in diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and vaccine development. In an infected individual the HCV genome population circulates as a quasispecies distribution of closely related yet heterogeneous RNA sequences centered around one dominant sequence. The dominant sequence, as well as the consensus sequence, changes sequentially during the course of the infection. A hypervariable region (HVR1) within one of the envelope proteins of HCV (E2) evolves very rapidly. Patients infected with HCV mount a humoral immune response to epitopes of HVR1. However, sequential changes in the consensus sequence of HVR1 during infection result in the generation of variants that are not recognized by preexisting antibodies. This might represent a mechanism by which HCV evades host immune surveillance and establishes and maintains persistent infection. It will be important to determine whether HVR1 of HCV, as was found for the V3 loop of HIV, contains epitopes that elicit neutralizing antibodies against HCV. Furthermore, it will be important to determine whether the quasispecies nature of HCV helps the virus evade the cytotoxic T-cell response of the host. Analysis of complete or partial HCV genomic sequences revealed that HCV exists as multiple, distinct genotypes. A total of nine major genetic groups and at least 30 subgroups have been recognized. To evaluate the current classification of HCV genotypes, we performed phylogenetic analyses of complete and partial nucleotide sequences from isolates that represent all published variants of HCV. Analysis of complete HCV sequences, which represent three major genetic groups, supports the currently used genotype classification scheme. However, analysis of the partial genomic regions (ie, C, E1, and NS5b) of HCV isolates that represent all recognized variants of HCV demonstrates that the genetic relatedness among some of the genotypes was not equivalent in the different gene regions. Furthermore, the distinction among isolates, subtypes, and types of HCV was not always clear. This finding might reflect the shortcomings of analyzing only limited gene regions or may reflect the wide spectrum of genetic variation of HCV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
TL;DR: The HCV NS5B apoenzyme structure reported here can accommodate a template:primer duplex without global conformational changes, supporting the hypothesis that this structure is essentially preserved during the reaction pathway.
Abstract: Various classes of nucleotidyl polymerases with different transcriptional roles contain a conserved core structure. Less is known, however, about the distinguishing features of these enzymes, particularly those of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase class. The 1. 9 A resolution crystal structure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) presented here provides the first complete and detailed view of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. While canonical polymerase features exist in the structure, NS5B adopts a unique shape due to extensive interactions between the fingers and thumb polymerase subdomains that serve to encircle the enzyme active site. Several insertions in the fingers subdomain account for intersubdomain linkages that include two extended loops and a pair of antiparallel alpha-helices. The HCV NS5B apoenzyme structure reported here can accommodate a template:primer duplex without global conformational changes, supporting the hypothesis that this structure is essentially preserved during the reaction pathway. This NS5B template:primer model also allows identification of a new structural motif involved in stabilizing the nascent base pair.
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