About: Nuclear DNA is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3933 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 185830 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Nov 1992-Journal of Cell Biology
TL;DR: The extent of tissue-PCD revealed by this method is considerably greater than apoptosis detected by nuclear morphology, and thus opens the way for a variety of studies.
Abstract: Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in developmental biology and in maintenance of the steady state in continuously renewing tissues. Currently, its existence is inferred mainly from gel electrophoresis of a pooled DNA extract as PCD was shown to be associated with DNA fragmentation. Based on this observation, we describe here the development of a method for the in situ visualization of PCD at the single-cell level, while preserving tissue architecture. Conventional histological sections, pretreated with protease, were nick end labeled with biotinylated poly dU, introduced by terminal deoxy-transferase, and then stained using avidin-conjugated peroxidase. The reaction is specific, only nuclei located at positions where PCD is expected are stained. The initial screening includes: small and large intestine, epidermis, lymphoid tissues, ovary, and other organs. A detailed analysis revealed that the process is initiated at the nuclear periphery, it is relatively short (1-3 h from initiation to cell elimination) and that PCD appears in tissues in clusters. The extent of tissue-PCD revealed by this method is considerably greater than apoptosis detected by nuclear morphology, and thus opens the way for a variety of studies.
TL;DR: The rate of evolution of the mitochondrial genome appears to exceed that of the single-copy fraction of the nuclear genome by a factor of about 10 and is likely to be an extremely useful molecule to employ for high-resolution analysis of the evolutionary process.
Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA was purified from four species of higher primates (Guinea baboon, rhesus macaque, guenon, and human) and digested with 11 restriction endonucleases. A cleavage map was constructed for the mitochondrial DNA of each species. Comparison of the maps, aligned with respect to the origin and direction of DNA replication, revealed that the species differ from one another at most of the cleavage sites. The degree of divergence in nucleotide sequence at these sites was calculated from the fraction of cleavage sites shared by each pair of species. By plotting the degree of divergence in mitochondrial DNA against time of divergence, the rate of base substitution could be calculated from the initial slope of the curve. The value obtained, 0.02 substitutions per base pair per million years, was compared with the value for single-copy nuclear DNA. The rate of evolution of the mitochondrial genome appears to exceed that of the single-copy fraction of the nuclear genome by a factor of about 10. This high rate may be due, in part, to an elevated rate of mutation in mitochondrial DNA. Because of the high rate of evolution, mitochondrial DNA is likely to be an extremely useful molecule to employ for high-resolution analysis of the evolutionary process.
TL;DR: This survey identified several horticultural crops in a variety of families with genomes only two or three times as large asArabidopsis and several fruit trees (a pricot, cherry, mango, orange, papaya, and peach) that should facilitate molecular studies of these crops.
Abstract: Nuclear DNA contents of more than 100 important plant species were measured by flow cytometry of isolated nuclei stained with propidium iodide.Arabidopsis exhibits developmentally regulated multiploidy and has a 2C nuclear DNA content of 0.30 pg (145 Mbp/1C), twice the value usually cited. The 2C value for rice is only about three times that ofArabidopsis. Tomato has a 2C value of about 2.0 pg, larger than commonly cited. This survey identified several horticultural crops in a variety of families with genomes only two or three times as large asArabidopsis; these include several fruit trees (a pricot, cherry, mango, orange, papaya, and peach). The small genome sizes of rice and the horticultural plants should facilitate molecular studies of these crops.
TL;DR: It is shown that, as well as 5mC in mammalian genomes, there are also significant amounts of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in DNA of Purkinje neurons, which have large nuclei with apparently very little heterochromatin.
Abstract: Despite the importance of epigenetic regulation in neurological disorders, little is known about neuronal chromatin. Cerebellar Purkinje neurons have large and euchromatic nuclei, whereas granule cell nuclei are small and have a more typical heterochromatin distribution. While comparing the abundance of 5-methylcytosine in Purkinje and granule cell nuclei, we detected the presence of an unusual DNA nucleotide. Using thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry, we identified the nucleotide as 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine (hmdC). hmdC constitutes 0.6% of total nucleotides in Purkinje cells, 0.2% in granule cells, and is not present in cancer cell lines. hmdC is a constituent of nuclear DNA that is highly abundant in the brain, suggesting a role in epigenetic control of neuronal function.
01 Apr 2004-Molecular Ecology
TL;DR: A critical examination of the neglected biology of mitochondria is carried out and several surprising gaps in the state of the authors' knowledge about this important organelle are pointed out.
Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used to study molecular ecology and phylogeography for 25 years. Much important information has been gained in this way, but it is time to reflect on the biology of the mitochondrion itself and consider opportunities for evolutionary studies of the organelle itself and its ecology, biochemistry and physiology. This review has four sections. First, we review aspects of the natural history of mitochondria and their DNA to show that it is a unique molecule with specific characteristics that differ from nuclear DNA. We do not attempt to cover the plethora of differences between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA; rather we spotlight differences that can cause significant bias when inferring demographic properties of populations and/or the evolutionary history of species. We focus on recombination, effective population size and mutation rate. Second, we explore some of the difficulties in interpreting phylogeographical data from mtDNA data alone and suggest a broader use of multiple nuclear markers. We argue that mtDNA is not a sufficient marker for phylogeographical studies if the focus of the investigation is the species and not the organelle. We focus on the potential bias caused by introgression. Third, we show that it is not safe to assume a priori that mtDNA evolves as a strictly neutral marker because both direct and indirect selection influence mitochondria. We outline some of the statistical tests of neutrality that can, and should, be applied to mtDNA sequence data prior to making any global statements concerning the history of the organism. We conclude with a critical examination of the neglected biology of mitochondria and point out several surprising gaps in the state of our knowledge about this important organelle. Here we limelight mitochondrial ecology, sexually antagonistic selection, life-history evolution including ageing and disease, and the evolution of mitochondrial inheritance.
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