About: Nuclear receptor is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 12999 publications have been published within this topic receiving 917825 citations. The topic is also known as: Nuclear_hrmn_rcpt & IPR001723.
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TL;DR: An extensive catalog of genes that act in a migrating cell is provided, unique molecular functions involved in nematode cell migration are identified, and similar functions in humans are suggested.
Abstract: In both metazoan development and metastatic cancer, migrating cells must carry out a detailed, complex program of sensing cues, binding substrates, and moving their cytoskeletons. The linker cell in Caenorhabditis elegans males undergoes a stereotyped migration that guides gonad organogenesis, occurs with precise timing, and requires the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-67. To better understand how this occurs, we performed RNA-seq of individually staged and dissected linker cells, comparing transcriptomes from linker cells of third-stage (L3) larvae, fourth-stage (L4) larvae, and nhr-67-RNAi–treated L4 larvae. We observed expression of 8,000–10,000 genes in the linker cell, 22–25% of which were up- or down-regulated 20-fold during development by NHR-67. Of genes that we tested by RNAi, 22% (45 of 204) were required for normal shape and migration, suggesting that many NHR-67–dependent, linker cell-enriched genes play roles in this migration. One unexpected class of genes up-regulated by NHR-67 was tandem pore potassium channels, which are required for normal linker-cell migration. We also found phenotypes for genes with human orthologs but no previously described migratory function. Our results provide an extensive catalog of genes that act in a migrating cell, identify unique molecular functions involved in nematode cell migration, and suggest similar functions in humans.
TL;DR: Results indicate that PGC-1 plays a key role in linking nuclear receptors to the transcriptional program of adaptive thermogenesis.
Abstract: Adaptive thermogenesis is an important component of energy homeostasis and a metabolic defense against obesity. We have cloned a novel transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors, termed PGC-1, from a brown fat cDNA library. PGC-1 mRNA expression is dramatically elevated upon cold exposure of mice in both brown fat and skeletal muscle, key thermogenic tissues. PGC-1 greatly increases the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma and the thyroid hormone receptor on the uncoupling protein (UCP-1) promoter. Ectopic expression of PGC-1 in white adipose cells activates expression of UCP-1 and key mitochondrial enzymes of the respiratory chain, and increases the cellular content of mitochondrial DNA. These results indicate that PGC-1 plays a key role in linking nuclear receptors to the transcriptional program of adaptive thermogenesis.
TL;DR: It is shown that PPAR-γ is markedly upregulated in activated macrophages and inhibits the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, gelatinase B and scavenger receptor A genes in response to 15d-PGJ2 and synthetic PPar-γ ligands, suggesting that PPARS and locally produced prostaglandin D2 metabolites are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses.
Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, adrenal gland and spleen PPAR-gamma has been demonstrated to regulate adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis in response to several structurally distinct compounds, including thiazolidinediones and fibrates Naturally occurring compounds such as fatty acids and the prostaglandin D2 metabolite 15-deoxy-delta prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) bind to PPAR-gamma and stimulate transcription of target genes Prostaglandin D2 metabolites have not yet been identified in adipose tissue, but are major products of arachidonic-acid metabolism in macrophages, raising the possibility that they might serve as endogenous PPAR-gamma ligands in this cell type Here we show that PPAR-gamma is markedly upregulated in activated macrophages and inhibits the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, gelatinase B and scavenger receptor A genes in response to 15d-PGJ2 and synthetic PPAR-gamma ligands PPAR-gamma inhibits gene expression in part by antagonizing the activities of the transcription factors AP-1, STAT and NF-kappaB These observations suggest that PPAR-gamma and locally produced prostaglandin D2 metabolites are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses, and raise the possibility that synthetic PPAR-gamma ligands may be of therapeutic value in human diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis in which activated macrophages exert pathogenic effects
TL;DR: The results suggest that the physiologic role of PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to endogenous lipid activators and that this factor may serve to link the process of adipocyte differentiation to systemic lipid metabolism.
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor that has recently been identified as a key regulator of two fat cell enhancers. Transcriptional activation by PPAR gamma 2 is potentiated by a variety of lipids and lipid-like compounds, including naturally occurring polyunsaturated fatty acids. We demonstrate here that retroviral expression of PPAR gamma 2 stimulates adipose differentiation of cultured fibroblasts. PPAR activators promote the differentiation of PPAR gamma 2-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. C/EBP alpha, a second transcription factor induced during adipocyte differentiation, can cooperate with PPAR gamma 2 to stimulate the adipocyte program dramatically. Our results suggest that the physiologic role of PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to endogenous lipid activators and that this factor may serve to link the process of adipocyte differentiation to systemic lipid metabolism.
TL;DR: The location, orientation, and structure of the hormone regulatory elements (HRE) in nine hormonally modulated genes is described and a model for the interaction is proposed in which a dimer of the receptor in head-to-head orientation binds to the inverted symmetry element of the HRE.
Abstract: The ability of cells to specify the fraction of their genetic information that they express in a particular spatiotemporal context is essential for adaptation to the changing conditions of their surroundings. In higher organisms, cells must respond to stimuli from the outer world and to signals from other cells directed to coordinate their state of activity for the proper development and functioning of the whole animal. Many of these signals impinge on receptors located at the cell membrane, where they elicit changes in the intracellular concentration of key molecules, second messengers, that ultimately modulate the expression of genetic programs. The signal transduction mechanism is simpler in the case of molecules acting through nuclear receptors able to recognize the signal and to interact directly with the nuclear genome. To this class belong the steroid hormones that influence the expression of a great variety of genes in many different cells.
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