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Nucleophile

About: Nucleophile is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 30898 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 602877 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Ralph G. Pearson1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Recently (1) the rate data for the generalized nucleophilic displacement reaction were reviewed.

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7,619 citations


BookDOI
25 Aug 2004-
Abstract: Preface.List of Contributors.1 Mechanistic Aspects of Metal-Catalyzed C,C- and C,X-Bond-Forming Reactions (Antonio M. Echavarren and Diego J. Cardenas).1.1 Mechanisms of Cross-Coupling Reactions.1.2 Formation of C,C-Bonds in the Palladium-Catalyzed alpha-Arylation of Carbonyl Compounds and Nitriles.1.3 Key Intermediates in the Formation of C-X (X = N, O, S) bonds in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions 251.3.1 Reductive Elimination of C-N, C-O, and C-S Bonds From Organopalladium(II) Complexes.1.4 Summary and Outlook.Abbreviations.References.2 Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Organoboron Compounds with Organic Halides (Norio Miyaura).2.1 Introduction.2.2 Advances in the Synthesis of Organoboron Compounds.2.3 Reaction Mechanism.2.4 Reaction Conditions.2.5 Side Reactions.2.6 Reactions of B-Alkyl Compounds.2.7 Reactions of B-Alkenyl Compounds.2.8 Reactions of B-Aryl Compounds.2.9 Reactions of B-Allyl and B-Alkynyl Compounds.2.10 Reactions Giving Ketones.2.11 Dimerization of Arylboronic Acids.2.12 N-, O-, and S-Arylation.Abbreviations.References.3 Organotin Reagents in Cross-Coupling Reactions (Terence N. Mitchell).3.1 Introduction.3.2 Mechanism and Methodology.3.3 Natural Product Synthesis.3.4 Organic Synthesis.3.5 Polymer Chemistry.3.6 Inorganic Synthesis.3.7 Conclusions.3.8 Experimental Procedures.Abbreviations.References.4 Organosilicon Compounds in Cross-Coupling Reactions (Scott E. Denmark and Ramzi F. Sweis).4.1 Introduction.4.2 Modern Organosilicon-Cross-Coupling.4.3 Mechanistic Studies in Silicon-Cross-Coupling.4.4 Applications to Total Synthesis.4.5 Summary and Outlook.4.6 Experimental Procedures.Abbreviations.References.5 Cross-Coupling of Organyl Halides with Alkenes: The Heck Reaction (Stefan Brase and Armin de Meijere).5.1 Introduction.5.2 Principles.5.3 Cascade Reactions and Multiple Couplings.5.4 Related Palladium-Catalyzed Reactions.5.5 Enantioselective Heck-Type Reactions.5.6 Syntheses of Heterocycles, Natural Products and Other Biologically Active Compounds Applying Heck Reactions.5.7 Carbopalladation Reactions in Solid-Phase Syntheses.5.8 The Heck Reaction in Fine Chemicals Syntheses.5.9 Conclusions.5.10 Experimental Procedures.Acknowledgments.Abbreviations and Acronyms.References.6 Cross-Coupling Reactions to sp Carbon Atoms (Jeremiah A. Marsden and Michael M. Haley).6.1 Introduction.6.2 Alkynylcopper Reagents.6.3 Alkynyltin Reagents.6.4 Alkynylzinc Reagents.6.5 Alkynylboron Reagents.6.6 Alkynylsilicon Reagents.6.7 Alkynylmagnesium Reagents.6.8 Other Alkynylmetals.6.9 Concluding Remarks.6.10 Experimental Procedures.Acknowledgments.Abbreviations and Acronyms.References.7 Carbometallation Reactions (Ilan Marek, Nicka Chinkov, and Daniella Banon-Tenne).7.1 Introduction.7.2 Carbometallation Reactions of Alkynes.7.3 Carbometallation Reactions of Alkenes.7.4 Zinc-Enolate Carbometallation Reactions.7.5 Carbometallation Reactions of Dienes and Enynes.7.6 Carbometallation Reactions of Allenes.7.7 Conclusions.7.8 Experimental Procedures.Acknowledgments.References.8 Palladium-Catalyzed 1,4-Additions to Conjugated Dienes (Jan-E. Backvall).8.1 Introduction.8.2 Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Reactions.8.3 Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions.References.9 Cross-Coupling Reactions via PI-Allylmetal Intermediates (Uli Kazmaier and Matthias Pohlman)9.1 Introduction.9.2 Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylations.9.3 Allylic Alkylations with Other Transition Metals.9.4 Experimental Procedures.Abbreviations.References.10 Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Propargyl Compounds (Jiro Tsuji and Tadakatsu Mandai).10.1 Introduction.10.2 Classification of Pd-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Propargyl Compounds.10.3 Reactions with Insertion into the sp2 Carbon Bond of Allenylpalladium Intermediates (Type I).10.4 Transformations via Transmetallation of Allenylpalladium Intermediates and Related Reactions (Type II).10.5 Reactions with Attack of Soft Carbon and Oxo Nucleophiles on the sp-Carbon of Allenylpalladium Intermediates (Type III).10.6 Experimental Procedures.Abbreviations.References.11 Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions Mediated by Organozinc Reagents (Paul Knochel, M. Isabel Calaza, and Eike Hupe).11.1 Introduction.11.2 Methods of Preparation of Zinc Organometallics.11.3 Uncatalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions.11.4 Copper-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions.11.5 Transition Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions.11.6 Conclusions.11.7 Experimental Procedures.Abbreviations.References.12 Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions Mediated by Organomagnesium Reagents (Paul Knochel, Ioannis Sapountzis, and Nina Gommermann).12.1 Introduction.12.2 Preparation of Polyfunctionalized Organomagnesium Reagents via a Halogen-Magnesium Exchange.12.3 Conclusions.12.4 Experimental Procedures.References.13 Palladium-Catalyzed Aromatic Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation (Lei Jiang and Stephen L. Buchwald).13.1 Introduction.13.2 Mechanistic Studies.13.3 General Features.13.4 Palladium-Catalyzed C-N Bond Formation.13.5 Vinylation.13.6 Amination On Solid Support.13.7 Conclusion.13.8 Representative Experimental Procedures.References.14 The Directed ortho-Metallation (DoM) Cross-Coupling Nexus. Synthetic Methodology for the Formation of Aryl-Aryl and Aryl-Heteroatom-Aryl Bonds (Eric J.-G. Anctil and Victor Snieckus).14.1 Introduction.14.2 The Aim of this Chapter.14.3 Synthetic Methodology derived from the DoM-Cross-Coupling Nexus.14.4 Applications of DoM in Synthesis.14.5 Conclusions and Prognosis.14.6 Selected Experimental Procedures.Abbreviations.References and Notes.15 Palladium- or Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling with Organometals Containing Zinc, Aluminum, and Zirconium: The Negishi Coupling (Ei-ichi Negishi, Xingzhong Zeng, Ze Tan, Mingxing Qian, Qian Hu, and Zhihong Huang).15.1 Introduction and General Discussion of Changeable Parameters.15.2 Recent Developments in the Negishi Coupling and Related Pd- or Ni-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions.15.3 Summary and Conclusions.15.4 Representative Experimental Procedures.References.Index.

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4,294 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Barry M. Trost1, David L. Van Vranken1Institutions (1)
01 Feb 1996-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The focus of this review is on the area of enantioselective transition metal-catalyzed allylic alkylations which may involve C-C as well as C-X (X ) H or heteroatom) bond formation.

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Abstract: Efficient and reliable amplification of chirality has borne its greatest fruit with transition metal-catalyzed reactions since enantiocontrol may often be imposed by replacing an achiral or chiral racemic ligand with one that is chiral and scalemic While the most thoroughly developed enantioselective transition metal-catalyzed reactions are those involving transfer of oxygen (epoxidation and dihydroxylation)1,2 and molecular hydrogen,3 the focus of this review is on the area of enantioselective transition metal-catalyzed allylic alkylations which may involve C-C as well as C-X (X ) H or heteroatom) bond formation4-9 The synthetic utility of transitionmetal-catalyzed allylic alkylations has been soundly demonstrated since its introduction nearly three decades ago10-21 In contrast to processes where the allyl moiety acts as the nucleophilic partner, we will limit our discussion to processes which result in nucleophilic displacements on allylic substrates (eq 1) Such reactions have been recorded with a broad

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2,414 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Chao-Jun Li1Institutions (1)
23 Jul 2005-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: Reaction of R,â-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds 3127: Reaction of R-UnSaturated Carbonies 3127 7.1.6.

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Abstract: 4.2.8. Reductive Coupling 3109 5. Reaction of Aromatic Compounds 3110 5.1. Electrophilic Substitutions 3110 5.2. Radical Substitution 3111 5.3. Oxidative Coupling 3111 5.4. Photochemical Reactions 3111 6. Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds 3111 6.1. Nucleophilic Additions 3111 6.1.1. Allylation 3111 6.1.2. Propargylation 3120 6.1.3. Benzylation 3121 6.1.4. Arylation/Vinylation 3121 6.1.5. Alkynylation 3121 6.1.6. Alkylation 3121 6.1.7. Reformatsky-Type Reaction 3122 6.1.8. Direct Aldol Reaction 3122 6.1.9. Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction 3124 6.1.10. Hydrogen Cyanide Addition 3125 6.2. Pinacol Coupling 3126 6.3. Wittig Reactions 3126 7. Reaction of R,â-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds 3127

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1,945 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Chao Liu1, Hua Zhang1, Wei Shi1, Aiwen Lei2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
23 Feb 2011-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: Oxidative X-X Bond Formations between Two Nucleophiles 1819 5.1.

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Abstract: 3.1. C-M and X-H as Nucleophiles 1806 3.2. C-H and X-M as Nucleophiles 1809 3.2.1. C-Halogen Bond Formations 1809 3.2.2. C-O Bond Formations 1812 3.3. C-H and X-H as Nucleophiles 1812 3.3.1. C-O Bond Formations 1812 3.3.2. C-N Bond Formations 1815 4. Oxidative X-X Bond Formations between Two Nucleophiles 1819 5. Conclusions 1819 Author Information 1819 Biographies 1819 Acknowledgment 1820 References 1820

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1,531 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
2021737
2020644
2019672
2018727
2017710

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Herbert Mayr

83 papers, 3.6K citations

Barry M. Trost

73 papers, 6.3K citations

Alan R. Katritzky

65 papers, 730 citations

Luis R. Domingo

57 papers, 1.2K citations

Ikchoon Lee

43 papers, 400 citations