Topic

# Null graph

About: Null graph is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6675 publications have been published within this topic receiving 204574 citations. The topic is also known as: edgeless graph & empty graph.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

•

01 Jan 1976

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present Graph Theory with Applications: Graph theory with applications, a collection of applications of graph theory in the field of Operational Research and Management. Journal of the Operational research Society: Vol. 28, Volume 28, issue 1, pp. 237-238.

Abstract: (1977). Graph Theory with Applications. Journal of the Operational Research Society: Vol. 28, Volume 28, issue 1, pp. 237-238.

7,497 citations

••

TL;DR: A new neural network model, called graph neural network (GNN) model, that extends existing neural network methods for processing the data represented in graph domains, and implements a function tau(G,n) isin IRm that maps a graph G and one of its nodes n into an m-dimensional Euclidean space.

Abstract: Many underlying relationships among data in several areas of science and engineering, e.g., computer vision, molecular chemistry, molecular biology, pattern recognition, and data mining, can be represented in terms of graphs. In this paper, we propose a new neural network model, called graph neural network (GNN) model, that extends existing neural network methods for processing the data represented in graph domains. This GNN model, which can directly process most of the practically useful types of graphs, e.g., acyclic, cyclic, directed, and undirected, implements a function tau(G,n) isin IRm that maps a graph G and one of its nodes n into an m-dimensional Euclidean space. A supervised learning algorithm is derived to estimate the parameters of the proposed GNN model. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm is also considered. Some experimental results are shown to validate the proposed learning algorithm, and to demonstrate its generalization capabilities.

5,701 citations

••

Google

^{1}TL;DR: A model for processing large graphs that has been designed for efficient, scalable and fault-tolerant implementation on clusters of thousands of commodity computers, and its implied synchronicity makes reasoning about programs easier.

Abstract: Many practical computing problems concern large graphs. Standard examples include the Web graph and various social networks. The scale of these graphs - in some cases billions of vertices, trillions of edges - poses challenges to their efficient processing. In this paper we present a computational model suitable for this task. Programs are expressed as a sequence of iterations, in each of which a vertex can receive messages sent in the previous iteration, send messages to other vertices, and modify its own state and that of its outgoing edges or mutate graph topology. This vertex-centric approach is flexible enough to express a broad set of algorithms. The model has been designed for efficient, scalable and fault-tolerant implementation on clusters of thousands of commodity computers, and its implied synchronicity makes reasoning about programs easier. Distribution-related details are hidden behind an abstract API. The result is a framework for processing large graphs that is expressive and easy to program.

3,840 citations

•

[...]

01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: This book presents an account of newer topics, including Szemer'edi's Regularity Lemma and its use; Shelah's extension of the Hales-Jewett Theorem; the precise nature of the phase transition in a random graph process; the connection between electrical networks and random walks on graphs; and the Tutte polynomial and its cousins in knot theory.

Abstract: The time has now come when graph theory should be part of the education of every serious student of mathematics and computer science, both for its own sake and to enhance the appreciation of mathematics as a whole. This book is an in-depth account of graph theory, written with such a student in mind; it reflects the current state of the subject and emphasizes connections with other branches of pure mathematics. The volume grew out of the author's earlier book, Graph Theory -- An Introductory Course, but its length is well over twice that of its predecessor, allowing it to reveal many exciting new developments in the subject. Recognizing that graph theory is one of several courses competing for the attention of a student, the book contains extensive descriptive passages designed to convey the flavor of the subject and to arouse interest. In addition to a modern treatment of the classical areas of graph theory such as coloring, matching, extremal theory, and algebraic graph theory, the book presents a detailed account of newer topics, including Szemer\'edi's Regularity Lemma and its use, Shelah's extension of the Hales-Jewett Theorem, the precise nature of the phase transition in a random graph process, the connection between electrical networks and random walks on graphs, and the Tutte polynomial and its cousins in knot theory. In no other branch of mathematics is it as vital to tackle and solve challenging exercises in order to master the subject. To this end, the book contains an unusually large number of well thought-out exercises: over 600 in total. Although some are straightforward, most of them are substantial, and others will stretch even the most able reader.

3,751 citations

••

01 Jan 2004TL;DR: This work gives a precise characterization of what energy functions can be minimized using graph cuts, among the energy functions that can be written as a sum of terms containing three or fewer binary variables.

Abstract: In the last few years, several new algorithms based on graph cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization problems in computer vision. Each of these techniques constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the graph also minimizes the energy. Yet, because these graph constructions are complex and highly specific to a particular energy function, graph cuts have seen limited application to date. In this paper, we give a characterization of the energy functions that can be minimized by graph cuts. Our results are restricted to functions of binary variables. However, our work generalizes many previous constructions and is easily applicable to vision problems that involve large numbers of labels, such as stereo, motion, image restoration, and scene reconstruction. We give a precise characterization of what energy functions can be minimized using graph cuts, among the energy functions that can be written as a sum of terms containing three or fewer binary variables. We also provide a general-purpose construction to minimize such an energy function. Finally, we give a necessary condition for any energy function of binary variables to be minimized by graph cuts. Researchers who are considering the use of graph cuts to optimize a particular energy function can use our results to determine if this is possible and then follow our construction to create the appropriate graph. A software implementation is freely available.

3,079 citations