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About: Nutrient is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 17693 publications have been published within this topic receiving 564069 citations. The topic is also known as: nutrient (animals and humans).

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01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the relationship between mineral nutrition and plant diseases and pests, and diagnose deficiency and toxicity of mineral nutrients in leaves and other aerial parts of a plant.
Abstract: Nutritional Physiology: Introduction, Definition, and Classification of Mineral Nutrients. Ion Uptake Mechanisms of Individual Cells and Roots: Short Distance Transport. Long-Distance Transport in the Xylem and Phloem and its Regulation. Uptake and Release of Mineral Elements by Leaves and Other Aerial Plant Parts. Yield and the Source-Sink Relationships. Mineral Nutrition and Yield Response. Nitrogen Fixation. Functions of Mineral Nutrients: Macronutrients. Function of Mineral Nutrients: Micronutrients. Beneficial Mineral Elements. Relationship between Mineral Nutrition and Plant Diseases and Pests. Diagnosis of Deficiency and Toxicity of Mineral Nutrients. Plant-Soil Relationships: Nutrient Availability in Soils. Effect of Internal and External Factors on Root Growth and Development. The Soil-Root Interface (Rhizosphere) in Relation to Mineral Nutrition. Adaptation of Plants to Adverse Chemical Soil Conditions. References. Subject Index.

16,025 citations

01 Jan 1982
TL;DR: In this article, the Soil as a Plant Nutrient Medium is discussed and the importance of water relations in plant growth and crop production, and the role of water as a plant nutrient medium.
Abstract: 1. Plant Nutrients. 2. The Soil as a Plant Nutrient Medium. 3. Nutrient Uptake and Assimilation. 4. Plant Water Relationships. 5. Plant Growth and Crop Production. 6. Fertilizer Application. 7. Nitrogen. 8. Sulphur. 9. Phosphorus. 10. Potassium. 11. Calcium. 12. Magnesium. 13. Iron. 14. Manganese. 15. Zinc. 16. Copper. 17. Molybdenum. 18. Boron. 19. Further Elements of Importance. 20. Elements with More Toxic Effects. General Readings. References. Index.

4,130 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two brief case studies demonstrate that nutrient loading restriction is the essential cornerstone of aquatic eutrophication control, and results of a preliminary statistical analysis are presented consistent with the hypothesis that anthropogenic emissions of oxidized nitrogen could be influencing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide via nitrogen stimulation of global primary production.

2,702 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The issues of nutrient-limited plant growth and nutrient uptake, with special emphasis on the importance of the uptake of nutrients in organic form—both by mycorrhizal and by non-mycorrhIZal plants—and the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation are treated.
Abstract: Publisher Summary In this chapter, the advances that have been made in understanding the ecology of the mineral nutrition of wild plants from terrestrial ecosystems have been reviewed. This chapter is organized along three lines. First, the issues of nutrient-limited plant growth and nutrient uptake, with special emphasis on the importance of the uptake of nutrients in organic form—both by mycorrhizal and by non-mycorrhizal plants—and the importance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is treated. In addition, the influence of allocation patterns on mineral nutrient uptake is described. Next, a few of the nutritional aspects of leaf functioning and how nutrients are used for biomass production by the plant are explored. That is done by studying the nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of plants and the various components of NUE. Finally, the feedback of plant species to soil nutrient availability by reviewing patterns in litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization is investigated. The chapter concludes with a synthesis of the various aspects of the mineral nutrition of wild plants. The chapter ends with a conceptual description of plant strategies with respect to mineral nutrition.

2,552 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationship between harmful algal blooms and eutrophication of coastal waters from human activities has been investigated in this paper, focusing on sources of nutrients, known effects of nutrient loading and reduction, new understanding of pathways of nutrient acquisition among HAB species, and relationships between nutrients and toxic algae.
Abstract: Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and its public perception over the last several decades. Of concern, especially for resource managers, is the potential relationship between HABs and the accelerated eutrophication of coastal waters from human activities. We address current insights into the relationships between HABs and eutrophication, focusing on sources of nutrients, known effects of nutrient loading and reduction, new understanding of pathways of nutrient acquisition among HAB species, and relationships between nutrients and toxic algae. Through specific, regional, and global examples of these various relationships, we offer both an assessment of the state of understanding, and the uncertainties that require future research efforts. The sources of nutrients poten- tially stimulating algal blooms include sewage, atmospheric deposition, groundwater flow, as well as agricultural and aquaculture runoff and discharge. On a global basis, strong correlations have been demonstrated between total phos- phorus inputs and phytoplankton production in freshwaters, and between total nitrogen input and phytoplankton pro- duction in estuarine and marine waters. There are also numerous examples in geographic regions ranging from the largest and second largest U.S. mainland estuaries (Chesapeake Bay and the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System), to the Inland Sea of Japan, the Black Sea, and Chinese coastal waters, where increases in nutrient loading have been linked with the development of large biomass blooms, leading to anoxia and even toxic or harmful impacts on fisheries re- sources, ecosystems, and human health or recreation. Many of these regions have witnessed reductions in phytoplankton biomass (as chlorophyll a) or HAB incidence when nutrient controls were put in place. Shifts in species composition have often been attributed to changes in nutrient supply ratios, primarily N:P or N:Si. Recently this concept has been extended to include organic forms of nutrients, and an elevation in the ratio of dissolved organic carbon to dissolved organic nitrogen (DOC:DON) has been observed during several recent blooms. The physiological strategies by which different groups of species acquire their nutrients have become better understood, and alternate modes of nutrition such as heterotrophy and mixotrophy are now recognized as common among HAB species. Despite our increased un- derstanding of the pathways by which nutrients are delivered to ecosystems and the pathways by which they are assimilated differentially by different groups of species, the relationships between nutrient delivery and the development of blooms and their potential toxicity or harmfulness remain poorly understood. Many factors such as algal species presence/ abundance, degree of flushing or water exchange, weather conditions, and presence and abundance of grazers contribute to the success of a given species at a given point in time. Similar nutrient loads do not have the same impact in different environments or in the same environment at different points in time. Eutrophication is one of several mechanisms by which harmful algae appear to be increasing in extent and duration in many locations. Although important, it is not the only explanation for blooms or toxic outbreaks. Nutrient enrichment has been strongly linked to stimulation of some harmful species, but for others it has not been an apparent contributing factor. The overall effect of nutrient over- enrichment on harmful algal species is clearly species specific.

2,500 citations

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