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Open cluster

About: Open cluster is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8264 publications have been published within this topic receiving 284428 citations. The topic is also known as: open star cluster & galactic cluster (open).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions are described, including better flat fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities.
Abstract: This paper describes the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), marking the completion of the original goals of the SDSS and the end of the phase known as SDSS-II. It includes 11,663 deg^2 of imaging data, with most of the ~2000 deg^2 increment over the previous data release lying in regions of low Galactic latitude. The catalog contains five-band photometry for 357 million distinct objects. The survey also includes repeat photometry on a 120° long, 2°.5 wide stripe along the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap, with some regions covered by as many as 90 individual imaging runs. We include a co-addition of the best of these data, going roughly 2 mag fainter than the main survey over 250 deg^2. The survey has completed spectroscopy over 9380 deg^2; the spectroscopy is now complete over a large contiguous area of the Northern Galactic Cap, closing the gap that was present in previous data releases. There are over 1.6 million spectra in total, including 930,000 galaxies, 120,000 quasars, and 460,000 stars. The data release includes improved stellar photometry at low Galactic latitude. The astrometry has all been recalibrated with the second version of the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog, reducing the rms statistical errors at the bright end to 45 milliarcseconds per coordinate. We further quantify a systematic error in bright galaxy photometry due to poor sky determination; this problem is less severe than previously reported for the majority of galaxies. Finally, we describe a series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions, including better flat fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities.

5,665 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A database of parameters for globular star clusters in the Milky Way is described which is available in electronic form through the WorldWideWeb as discussed by the authors. The information in the catalog includes up-to-date measurements for cluster distance, reddening, luminosity, colors and spectral types, velocity, structural and dynamical parameters, horizontal branch morphology, metallicity, and other quantities.
Abstract: A database of parameters for globular star clusters in the Milky Way is described which is available in electronic form through the WorldWideWeb. The information in the catalog includes up-to-date measurements for cluster distance, reddening, luminosity, colors and spectral types, velocity, structural and dynamical parameters, horizontal branch morphology, metallicity, and other quantities. This catalog will be updated regularly and maintained in electronic form for widest possible accessibility. Associated Articles Source Paper Catalog Description Catalog Description

4,741 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first extensive catalog of galactic embedded clusters is compiled, finding that the embedded cluster birthrate exceeds that of visible open clusters by an order of magnitude or more indicating a high infant mortality rate for protocluster systems.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Stellar clusters are born embedded within giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and during their formation and early evolution are often only visible at infrared wavelengths, being heavily obscured by dust. Over the past 15 years advances in infrared detection capabilities have enabled the first systematic studies of embedded clusters in galactic molecular clouds. In this article we review the current state of empirical knowledge concerning these extremely young protocluster systems. From a survey of the literature we compile the first extensive catalog of galactic embedded clusters. We use the catalog to construct the mass function and estimate the birthrate for embedded clusters within ∼2 kpc of the sun. We find that the embedded cluster birthrate exceeds that of visible open clusters by an order of magnitude or more indicating a high infant mortality rate for protocluster systems. Less than 4–7% of embedded clusters survive emergence from molecular clouds to become bound clusters of Pleiades age. Th...

2,949 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars were analyzed using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5m telescope.
Abstract: We present an analysis of the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars using the F0 through M9 type members of nearby, negligibly reddened groups: η Cha cluster, TW Hydra Association, β Pic Moving Group, and Tucana-Horologium Association. To check the consistency of spectral types from the literature, we estimate new spectral types for 52 nearby pre-MS stars with spectral types F3 through M4 using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5m telescope. Combining these new types with published spectral types, and photometry from the literature (Johnson-Cousins BV IC, 2MASS JHKS and WISE W1, W2, W3, and W4), we derive a new empirical spectral type-color sequence for 5-30 Myr old pre-MS stars. Colors for pre-MS stars match dwarf colors for some spectral types and colors, but for other spectral types and colors, deviations can exceed 0.3 mag. We estimate effective temperatures (Teff) and bolometric corrections (BCs) for our pre-MS star sample through comparing their photometry to synthetic photometry generated using the BT-Settl grid of model atmosphere spectra. We derive a new Teff and BC scale for pre-MS stars, which should be a more appropriate match for T Tauri stars than often-adopted dwarf star scales. While our new Teff scale for pre-MS stars is within ≃100 K of dwarfs at a given spectral type for stars

1,811 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first data release of SDSS-III is described in this article, which includes five-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg2 in the southern Galactic cap, bringing the total footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging to 14,555 deg2, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere.
Abstract: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in 2008 August, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Lyα forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around ~8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes five-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg2 in the southern Galactic cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg2, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent photometric recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameter pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high-metallicity stars.

1,578 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023131
2022213
2021203
2020195
2019199
2018206