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Optical communication

About: Optical communication is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 22297 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 273235 citation(s). The topic is also known as: optical telecommunication.

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01 Jan 1992
Abstract: Preface. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Historical Perspective. 1.2 Basic Concepts. 1.3 Optical Communication Systems. 1.4 Lightwave System Components. Problems. References. 2 Optical Fibers. 2.1 Geometrical-Optics Description. 2.2 Wave Propagation. 2.3 Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers. 2.4 Dispersion-Induced Limitations. 2.5 Fiber Losses. 2.6 Nonlinear Optical Effects. 2.7 Fiber Design and Fabrication. Problems. References. 3 Optical Transmitters. 3.1 Semiconductor Laser Physics. 3.2 Single-Mode Semiconductor Lasers. 3.3 Laser Characteristics. 3.4 Optical Signal Generation. 3.5 Light-Emitting Diodes. 3.6 Transmitter Design. Problems. References. 4 Optical Receivers. 4.1 Basic Concepts. 4.2 Common Photodetectors. 4.3 Receiver Design. 4.4 Receiver Noise. 4.5 Coherent Detection. 4.6 Receiver Sensitivity. 4.7 Sensitivity Degradation. 4.8 Receiver Performance. Problems. References. 5 Lightwave Systems. 5.1 System Architectures. 5.2 Design Guidelines. 5.3 Long-Haul Systems. 5.4 Sources of Power Penalty. 5.5 Forward Error Correction. 5.6 Computer-Aided Design. Problems. References. 6 Multichannel Systems. 6.1 WDM Lightwave Systems. 6.2 WDM Components. 6.3 System Performance Issues. 6.4 Time-Division Multiplexing. 6.5 Subcarrier Multiplexing. 6.6 Code-Division Multiplexing. Problems. References. 7 Loss Management. 7.1 Compensation of Fiber Losses. 7.2 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. 7.3 Raman Amplifiers. 7.4 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio. 7.5 Electrical Signal-To-Noise Ratio. 7.6 Receiver Sensitivity and Q Factor. 7.7 Role of Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects. 7.8 Periodically Amplified Lightwave Systems. Problems. References. 8 Dispersion Management. 8.1 Dispersion Problem and Its Solution. 8.2 Dispersion-Compensating Fibers. 8.3 Fiber Bragg Gratings. 8.4 Dispersion-Equalizing Filters. 8.5 Optical Phase Conjugation. 8.6 Channels at High Bit Rates. 8.7 Electronic Dispersion Compensation. Problems. References. 9 Control of Nonlinear Effects. 9.1 Impact of Fiber Nonlinearity. 9.2 Solitons in Optical Fibers. 9.3 Dispersion-Managed Solitons. 9.4 Pseudo-linear Lightwave Systems. 9.5 Control of Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects. Problems. References. 10 Advanced Lightwave Systems. 10.1 Advanced Modulation Formats. 10.2 Demodulation Schemes. 10.3 Shot Noise and Bit-Error Rate. 10.4 Sensitivity Degradation Mechanisms. 10.5 Impact of Nonlinear Effects. 10.6 Recent Progress. 10.7 Ultimate Channel Capacity. Problems. References. 11 Optical Signal Processing. 11.1 Nonlinear Techniques and Devices. 11.2 All-Optical Flip-Flops. 11.3 Wavelength Converters. 11.4 Ultrafast Optical Switching. 11.5 Optical Regenerators. Problems. References. A System of Units. B Acronyms. C General Formula for Pulse Broadening. D Software Package.

4,090 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Jun 2011-Nature
TL;DR: Graphene-based optical modulation mechanism, with combined advantages of compact footprint, low operation voltage and ultrafast modulation speed across a broad range of wavelengths, can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications.
Abstract: Graphene, the single-atom-thick form of carbon, holds promise for many applications, notably in electronics where it can complement or be integrated with silicon-based devices. Intense efforts have been devoted to develop a key enabling device, a broadband, fast optical modulator with a small device footprint. Now Liu et al. demonstrate an exciting new possibility for graphene in the area of on-chip optical communication: a graphene-based optical modulator integrated with a silicon chip. This new device relies on the electrical tuning of the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, and achieves modulation of guided light at frequencies over 1 gigahertz, together with a broad operating spectrum. At just 25 square micrometres in area, it is one of the smallest of its type. Integrated optical modulators with high modulation speed, small footprint and large optical bandwidth are poised to be the enabling devices for on-chip optical interconnects1,2. Semiconductor modulators have therefore been heavily researched over the past few years. However, the device footprint of silicon-based modulators is of the order of millimetres, owing to its weak electro-optical properties3. Germanium and compound semiconductors, on the other hand, face the major challenge of integration with existing silicon electronics and photonics platforms4,5,6. Integrating silicon modulators with high-quality-factor optical resonators increases the modulation strength, but these devices suffer from intrinsic narrow bandwidth and require sophisticated optical design; they also have stringent fabrication requirements and limited temperature tolerances7. Finding a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible material with adequate modulation speed and strength has therefore become a task of not only scientific interest, but also industrial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a broadband, high-speed, waveguide-integrated electroabsorption modulator based on monolayer graphene. By electrically tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, we demonstrate modulation of the guided light at frequencies over 1 GHz, together with a broad operation spectrum that ranges from 1.35 to 1.6 µm under ambient conditions. The high modulation efficiency of graphene results in an active device area of merely 25 µm2, which is among the smallest to date. This graphene-based optical modulation mechanism, with combined advantages of compact footprint, low operation voltage and ultrafast modulation speed across a broad range of wavelengths, can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications.

2,764 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Based on numerical analyses, it is shown that the proposed indoor visible-light communication system utilizing white LED lights is expected to be the indoor communication of the next generation.
Abstract: White LED offers advantageous properties such as high brightness, reliability, lower power consumption and long lifetime. White LEDs are expected to serve in the next generation of lamps. An indoor visible-light communication system utilizing white LED lights has been proposed from our laboratory. In the proposed system, these devices are used not only for illuminating rooms but also for an optical wireless communication system. Generally, plural lights are installed in our room. So, their optical path difference must be considered. In this paper, we discuss about the influence of interference and reflection. Based on numerical analyses, we show that the system is expected to be the indoor communication of the next generation.

2,594 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This Review summarizes the simultaneous transmission of several independent spatial channels of light along optical fibres to expand the data-carrying capacity of optical communications. Recent results achieved in both multicore and multimode optical fibres are documented.

2,125 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Although silicon has dominated solid-state electronics for more than four decades, a variety of other materials are used in photonic devices to expand the wavelength range of operation and improve performance. For example, gallium-nitride based materials enable light emission at blue and ultraviolet wavelengths1, and high index contrast silicon-on-insulator facilitates ultradense photonic devices2,3. Here, we report the first use of a photodetector based on graphene4,5, a two-dimensional carbon material, in a 10 Gbit s−1 optical data link. In this interdigitated metal–graphene–metal photodetector, an asymmetric metallization scheme is adopted to break the mirror symmetry of the internal electric-field profile in conventional graphene field-effect transistor channels6,7,8,9, allowing for efficient photodetection. A maximum external photoresponsivity of 6.1 mA W−1 is achieved at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. Owing to the unique band structure of graphene10,11 and extensive developments in graphene electronics12,13 and wafer-scale synthesis13, graphene-based integrated electronic–photonic circuits with an operational wavelength range spanning 300 nm to 6 µm (and possibly beyond) can be expected in the future. A graphene-based photodetector with unprecedented photoresponsivity and the ability to perform error-free detection of 10 Gbit s−1s data streams is demonstrated. The results suggest that graphene-based photonic devices have a bright future in telecommunications and other optical applications.

1,982 citations

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