Topic

# Optical lattice

About: Optical lattice is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5794 publications have been published within this topic receiving 167331 citations.

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TL;DR: This work observes a quantum phase transition in a Bose–Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential, and can induce reversible changes between the two ground states of the system.

Abstract: For a system at a temperature of absolute zero, all thermal fluctuations are frozen out, while quantum fluctuations prevail. These microscopic quantum fluctuations can induce a macroscopic phase transition in the ground state of a many-body system when the relative strength of two competing energy terms is varied across a critical value. Here we observe such a quantum phase transition in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential. As the potential depth of the lattice is increased, a transition is observed from a superfluid to a Mott insulator phase. In the superfluid phase, each atom is spread out over the entire lattice, with long-range phase coherence. But in the insulating phase, exact numbers of atoms are localized at individual lattice sites, with no phase coherence across the lattice; this phase is characterized by a gap in the excitation spectrum. We can induce reversible changes between the two ground states of the system.

4,467 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Bose-Hubbard model was used to model the phase transition from the superfluid to the Mott insulator phase induced by varying the depth of the optical potential.

Abstract: The dynamics of an ultracold dilute gas of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice can be described by a Bose-Hubbard model where the system parameters are controlled by laser light We study the continuous (zero temperature) quantum phase transition from the superfluid to the Mott insulator phase induced by varying the depth of the optical potential, where the Mott insulator phase corresponds to a commensurate filling of the lattice (``optical crystal'') Examples for formation of Mott structures in optical lattices with a superimposed harmonic trap and in optical superlattices are presented

2,873 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the physical principles at the basis of this artificial magnetism are presented, and the analysis is generalized to the simulation of non-Abelian gauge potentials and some striking consequences are presented.

Abstract: When a neutral atom moves in a properly designed laser field, its center-of-mass motion may mimic the dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field, with the emergence of a Lorentz-like force. In this Colloquium the physical principles at the basis of this artificial (synthetic) magnetism are presented. The corresponding Aharonov-Bohm phase is related to the Berry's phase that emerges when the atom adiabatically follows one of the dressed states of the atom-laser interaction. Some manifestations of artificial magnetism for a cold quantum gas, in particular, in terms of vortex nucleation are discussed. The analysis is then generalized to the simulation of non-Abelian gauge potentials and some striking consequences are presented, such as the emergence of an effective spin-orbit coupling. Both the cases of bulk gases and discrete systems, where atoms are trapped in an optical lattice, are addressed.

1,531 citations

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TL;DR: This experiment experimentally observed this nonergodic evolution for interacting fermions in a one-dimensional quasirandom optical lattice and identified the MBL transition through the relaxation dynamics of an initially prepared charge density wave.

Abstract: Many-body localization (MBL), the disorder-induced localization of interacting particles, signals a breakdown of conventional thermodynamics because MBL systems do not thermalize and show nonergodic time evolution. We experimentally observed this nonergodic evolution for interacting fermions in a one-dimensional quasirandom optical lattice and identified the MBL transition through the relaxation dynamics of an initially prepared charge density wave. For sufficiently weak disorder, the time evolution appears ergodic and thermalizing, erasing all initial ordering, whereas above a critical disorder strength, a substantial portion of the initial ordering persists. The critical disorder value shows a distinctive dependence on the interaction strength, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Our experiment paves the way to further detailed studies of MBL, such as in noncorrelated disorder or higher dimensions.

1,454 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the spectacular accuracy and stability gains that can be obtained when working with laser cooled ions or neutral atoms and discuss some important applications of these optical clocks, from geodesy to tests of fundamental theories to many body physics.

Abstract: Since 1967 the primary time standard is the cesium atomic clock, based on a hyperfine transition in the microwave domain The development of ultrastable laser sources now allows one to operate on electronic transitions in the optical domain, corresponding to a 5-order-of-magnitude increase in the clock frequency This article reviews the spectacular accuracy and stability gains that can be obtained when working with laser cooled ions or neutral atoms It also discusses some important applications of these optical clocks, from geodesy to tests of fundamental theories to many-body physics

1,393 citations