About: Optical switch is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 28538 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 351176 citation(s).
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•01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of the main components of WDM lightwave communication systems, including the following: 1.1 Geometrical-Optics Description, 2.2 Wave Propagation, 3.3 Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers, 4.4 Dispersion-Induced Limitations.
Abstract: Preface. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Historical Perspective. 1.2 Basic Concepts. 1.3 Optical Communication Systems. 1.4 Lightwave System Components. Problems. References. 2 Optical Fibers. 2.1 Geometrical-Optics Description. 2.2 Wave Propagation. 2.3 Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers. 2.4 Dispersion-Induced Limitations. 2.5 Fiber Losses. 2.6 Nonlinear Optical Effects. 2.7 Fiber Design and Fabrication. Problems. References. 3 Optical Transmitters. 3.1 Semiconductor Laser Physics. 3.2 Single-Mode Semiconductor Lasers. 3.3 Laser Characteristics. 3.4 Optical Signal Generation. 3.5 Light-Emitting Diodes. 3.6 Transmitter Design. Problems. References. 4 Optical Receivers. 4.1 Basic Concepts. 4.2 Common Photodetectors. 4.3 Receiver Design. 4.4 Receiver Noise. 4.5 Coherent Detection. 4.6 Receiver Sensitivity. 4.7 Sensitivity Degradation. 4.8 Receiver Performance. Problems. References. 5 Lightwave Systems. 5.1 System Architectures. 5.2 Design Guidelines. 5.3 Long-Haul Systems. 5.4 Sources of Power Penalty. 5.5 Forward Error Correction. 5.6 Computer-Aided Design. Problems. References. 6 Multichannel Systems. 6.1 WDM Lightwave Systems. 6.2 WDM Components. 6.3 System Performance Issues. 6.4 Time-Division Multiplexing. 6.5 Subcarrier Multiplexing. 6.6 Code-Division Multiplexing. Problems. References. 7 Loss Management. 7.1 Compensation of Fiber Losses. 7.2 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. 7.3 Raman Amplifiers. 7.4 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio. 7.5 Electrical Signal-To-Noise Ratio. 7.6 Receiver Sensitivity and Q Factor. 7.7 Role of Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects. 7.8 Periodically Amplified Lightwave Systems. Problems. References. 8 Dispersion Management. 8.1 Dispersion Problem and Its Solution. 8.2 Dispersion-Compensating Fibers. 8.3 Fiber Bragg Gratings. 8.4 Dispersion-Equalizing Filters. 8.5 Optical Phase Conjugation. 8.6 Channels at High Bit Rates. 8.7 Electronic Dispersion Compensation. Problems. References. 9 Control of Nonlinear Effects. 9.1 Impact of Fiber Nonlinearity. 9.2 Solitons in Optical Fibers. 9.3 Dispersion-Managed Solitons. 9.4 Pseudo-linear Lightwave Systems. 9.5 Control of Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects. Problems. References. 10 Advanced Lightwave Systems. 10.1 Advanced Modulation Formats. 10.2 Demodulation Schemes. 10.3 Shot Noise and Bit-Error Rate. 10.4 Sensitivity Degradation Mechanisms. 10.5 Impact of Nonlinear Effects. 10.6 Recent Progress. 10.7 Ultimate Channel Capacity. Problems. References. 11 Optical Signal Processing. 11.1 Nonlinear Techniques and Devices. 11.2 All-Optical Flip-Flops. 11.3 Wavelength Converters. 11.4 Ultrafast Optical Switching. 11.5 Optical Regenerators. Problems. References. A System of Units. B Acronyms. C General Formula for Pulse Broadening. D Software Package.
16 Jan 2002-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: In this paper, the photoconducting properties of individual semiconductor nanowires are explored and the authors show the possibility of creating highly sensitive nanowire switches by exploring the photocconducting properties.
Abstract: no attention has been given to the photoconducting properties of nanowires despite the exciting possibilities for use in optoelectronic circuits. Here, we show the possibility of creating highly sensitive nanowire switches by exploring the photoconducting properties of individual semiconductor nanowires. The conductivity of the ZnO nanowires is extremely sensitive to ultraviolet light exposure. The light-induced conductivity increase allows us to reversibly switch the nanowires between “OFF” and “ON” states, an optical gating phenomenon analogous to the commonly used electrical gating. [2,3,10]
TL;DR: The experimental demonstration of fast all-optical switching on silicon using highly light-confining structures to enhance the sensitivity of light to small changes in refractive index and confirm the recent theoretical prediction of efficient optical switching in silicon using resonant structures.
Abstract: Photonic circuits, in which beams of light redirect the flow of other beams of light, are a long-standing goal for developing highly integrated optical communication components1,2,3. Furthermore, it is highly desirable to use silicon—the dominant material in the microelectronic industry—as the platform for such circuits. Photonic structures that bend, split, couple and filter light have recently been demonstrated in silicon4,5, but the flow of light in these structures is predetermined and cannot be readily modulated during operation. All-optical switches and modulators have been demonstrated with III–V compound semiconductors6,7, but achieving the same in silicon is challenging owing to its relatively weak nonlinear optical properties. Indeed, all-optical switching in silicon has only been achieved by using extremely high powers8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15 in large or non-planar structures, where the modulated light is propagating out-of-plane. Such high powers, large dimensions and non-planar geometries are inappropriate for effective on-chip integration. Here we present the experimental demonstration of fast all-optical switching on silicon using highly light-confining structures to enhance the sensitivity of light to small changes in refractive index. The transmission of the structure can be modulated by up to 94% in less than 500 ps using light pulses with energies as low as 25 pJ. These results confirm the recent theoretical prediction16 of efficient optical switching in silicon using resonant structures.
TL;DR: Recent progress in multiwavelength networks are reviewed, some of the limitations which affect the performance of such networks are discussed, and examples of several network and switch proposals based on these ideas are presented.
Abstract: The very broad bandwidth of low-loss optical transmission in a single-mode fiber and the recent improvements in single-frequency tunable lasers have stimulated significant advances in dense wavelength division multiplexed optical networks This technology, including wavelength-sensitive optical switching and routing elements and passive optical elements, has made it possible to consider the use of wavelength as another dimension, in addition to time and space, in network and switch design The independence of optical signals at different wavelengths makes this a natural choice for multiple-access networks, for applications which benefit from shared transmission media, and for networks in which very large throughputs are required Recent progress in multiwavelength networks are reviewed, some of the limitations which affect the performance of such networks are discussed, and examples of several network and switch proposals based on these ideas are presented Discussed also are critical technologies that are essential to progress in this field >
02 Oct 2002-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: A survey of suitable optical polymer systems, their processing techniques, and the integrated optical waveguide components and circuits derived from these materials is summarized in this paper, where the characteristics of several important classes of optical polymers, such as their refractive index, optical loss, processibility/mechanical properties, and environmental performance are discussed.
Abstract: Polymer optical waveguide devices will play a key role in several rapidly developing areas of broadband communications, such as optical networking, metropolitan/access communications, and computing systems due to their easier processibility and integration over inorganic counterparts. The combined advantages also makes them an ideal integration platform where foreign material systems such as YIG (yttrium iron garnet) and lithium niobate, and semiconductor devices such as lasers, detectors, amplifiers, and logic circuits can be inserted into an etched groove in a planar lightwave circuit to enable full amplifier modules or optical add/drop multiplexers on a single substrate. Moreover, the combination of flexibility and toughness in optical polymers makes it suitable for vertical integration to realize 3D and even all-polymer integrated optics. In this review, a survey of suitable optical polymer systems, their processing techniques, and the integrated optical waveguide components and circuits derived from these materials is summarized. The first part is focused on discussing the characteristics of several important classes of optical polymers, such as their refractive index, optical loss, processibility/mechanical properties, and environmental performance. Then, the emphasis is placed on the discussion of several novel passive and active (electro-optic and thermo-optic) polymer systems and versatile processing techniques commonly used for fabricating component devices, such as photoresist-based patterning, direct lithographic patterning, and soft lithography. At the end, a series of compelling polymer optical waveguide devices including optical interconnects, directional couplers, array waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers, switches, tunable filters, variable optical attenuators (VOAs), and amplifiers are reviewed. Several integrated planar lightwave circuits, such as tunable optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs), photonic crystal superprism waveguides, digital optical switches (DOSs) integrated with VOAs, traveling-wave heterojunction phototransistors, and three-dimensionally (3D) integrated optical devices are also highlighted.
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