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Optical transfer function

About: Optical transfer function is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6079 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 90526 citation(s). The topic is also known as: modulation transfer function & OTF.

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Journal ArticleDOI
David L. Fried1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A theoretical foundation is developed for relating the statistics of wave distortion to optical resolution. The average resolution of very-long- and very-short-exposure images is studied in terms of the phase- and log-amplitude-structure functions, whose sum we call the “wave-structure function.” Those results which are comparable are in agreement with the findings of Hufnagel and Stanley who studied the average modulation transfer function of long-exposure images. It is found that the average short-exposure resolution can be significantly better than the average long-exposure resolution, but only if the wave distortion does not include substantial intensity variation.

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1,420 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A definition of local band-limited contrast in images is proposed that assigns a contrast value to every point in the image as a function of the spatial frequency band and is helpful in understanding the effects of image-processing algorithms on the perceived contrast.

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Abstract: The physical contrast of simple images such as sinusoidal gratings or a single patch of light on a uniform background is well defined and agrees with the perceived contrast, but this is not so for complex images. Most definitions assign a single contrast value to the whole image, but perceived contrast may vary greatly across the image. Human contrast sensitivity is a function of spatial frequency; therefore the spatial frequency content of an image should be considered in the definition of contrast. In this paper a definition of local band-limited contrast in images is proposed that assigns a contrast value to every point in the image as a function of the spatial frequency band. For each frequency band, the contrast is defined as the ratio of the bandpass-filtered image at the frequency to the low-pass image filtered to an octave below the same frequency (local luminance mean). This definition raises important implications regarding the perception of contrast in complex images and is helpful in understanding the effects of image-processing algorithms on the perceived contrast. A pyramidal image-contrast structure based on this definition is useful in simulating nonlinear, threshold characteristics of spatial vision in both normal observers and the visually impaired.

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1,305 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: A self-scanned 1024 element photodiode array and minicomputer are used to measure the phase (wavefront) in the interference pattern of an interferometer to lambda/100. The photodiode array samples intensities over a 32 x 32 matrix in the interference pattern as the length of the reference arm is varied piezoelectrically. Using these data the minicomputer synchronously detects the phase at each of the 1024 points by a Fourier series method and displays the wavefront in contour and perspective plot on a storage oscilloscope in less than 1 min (Bruning et al. Paper WE16, OSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 1972). The array of intensities is sampled and averaged many times in a random fashion so that the effects of air turbulence, vibrations, and thermal drifts are minimized. Very significant is the fact that wavefront errors in the interferometer are easily determined and may be automatically subtracted from current or subsequent wavefrots. Various programs supporting the measurement system include software for determining the aperture boundary, sum and difference of wavefronts, removal or insertion of tilt and focus errors, and routines for spatial manipulation of wavefronts. FFT programs transform wavefront data into point spread function and modulus and phase of the optical transfer function of lenses. Display programs plot these functions in contour and perspective. The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

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1,267 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Edward R. Dowski1, W. Thomas Cathey1Institutions (1)
10 Apr 1995-Applied Optics
TL;DR: An optical-digital system that delivers near-diffraction-limited imaging performance with a large depth of field that is the standard incoherent optical system modified by a phase mask with digital processing of the resulting intermediate image.

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Abstract: We designed an optical‐digital system that delivers near-diffraction-limited imaging performance with a large depth of field. This system is the standard incoherent optical system modified by a phase mask with digital processing of the resulting intermediate image. The phase mask alters or codes the received incoherent wave front in such a way that the point-spread function and the optical transfer function do not change appreciably as a function of misfocus. Focus-independent digital filtering of the intermediate image is used to produce a combined optical‐digital system that has a nearly diffraction limited point-spread function. This high-resolution extended depth of field is obtained through the expense of an increased dynamic range of the incoherent system. We use both the ambiguity function and the stationary-phase method to design these phase masks.

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1,265 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J. H. Bruning1, D. R. Herriott1, J. E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Nov 1974-Applied Optics
TL;DR: The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

...read more

Abstract: A self-scanned 1024 element photodiode array and minicomputer are used to measure the phase (wavefront) in the interference pattern of an interferometer to lambda/100. The photodiode array samples intensities over a 32 x 32 matrix in the interference pattern as the length of the reference arm is varied piezoelectrically. Using these data the minicomputer synchronously detects the phase at each of the 1024 points by a Fourier series method and displays the wavefront in contour and perspective plot on a storage oscilloscope in less than 1 min (Bruning et al. Paper WE16, OSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 1972). The array of intensities is sampled and averaged many times in a random fashion so that the effects of air turbulence, vibrations, and thermal drifts are minimized. Very significant is the fact that wavefront errors in the interferometer are easily determined and may be automatically subtracted from current or subsequent wavefrots. Various programs supporting the measurement system include software for determining the aperture boundary, sum and difference of wavefronts, removal or insertion of tilt and focus errors, and routines for spatial manipulation of wavefronts. FFT programs transform wavefront data into point spread function and modulus and phase of the optical transfer function of lenses. Display programs plot these functions in contour and perspective. The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

...read more

1,145 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
2021116
2020143
2019175
2018146
2017195

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Norman S. Kopeika

47 papers, 508 citations

Glenn D. Boreman

24 papers, 1.2K citations

Colin J. R. Sheppard

18 papers, 520 citations

George Fountos

14 papers, 138 citations

Ioannis Kandarakis

13 papers, 111 citations